French actress. Played in the plays of Shakespeare, Rasin, Dumas, Sardou, Hugo, Musset, Rostand, and others were shot in the movies: "Tosca," "Queen Elizabeth", "Lady with the Camellias", etc.
Sarah Bernhardt was born on October 22, 1844 in Paris. She was one of the three daughters of illegal Judith Bernard (von Hard), dressmaker Dutch-Jewish descent. Beauty Judith has appeared in Paris as a Courtesan, her visits to Dumas (father and son), Rossini, and the Duke de Morne. "This is a family - the actress wrote enemies, brothers Gonkury in his famous" Journal. "- Mother forced daughter to be confusing when they have not even 13 years."
With regard to the father of Sarah Bernhardt, it is difficult to determine who he was. Many believe that this is a French Navy officer named Morel.
Up to five years, Sarah lived with breastfeeding. Then she was in a hostel, and Mrs. Fressar Grand Shan monastery. In fourteen years, Sarah goes to Paris, where his mother hires her teacher. Then, on the advice of the Duke de Morne Bernard preference in the Paris Conservatoire. Sarah went to drama classes at Provo and Sansona.
On the recommendation of Dumas father and the Duke de Morne she receives contract in "Comedy Frances." 1 September, 1862 Bernard debuted on stage in the role of glorified Ifigenii (Ifigeniya in Avlide "Rasin). Francisc SARS wrote in the "OpiniГіn Nacional": "Mademoiselle Bernard, debuted yesterday in Ifigenii" - tall, slender girl of pleasant appearance, especially beautiful in the upper part of her face. Lives by it well and has an impeccable diction. "
But next year, after a fit of anger, she hit another actress, Bernard has gone from "Comedy Frances." This was the beginning of its complicated and turbulent artistic life.
Sarah received a contract in the theater "Zhimnaz" and here the first time, demonstrated his outstanding talent as a dramatic actress, and the unpredictable nature: prior to the submission Labisha plays in which she played a major role, she suddenly left Paris, leaving only a letter to the author, finishing with: "a poor excuse crazy." Having quite a long trip to Spain, Bernard returned to Paris.
Its first known lover was Count de Keratri. But a stronger feeling connected with Prince Bernard de line, from which she bore a son, Maurice. Subsequently, De Lin invited Maurice to recognize him and give his name, but he refused.
So, in twenty years, Sarah - a young actress, the victim collapsed, with his son, who had to be fed, and a lot of good friends. She worked in the short Theater Port of St. Maarten, and then passed into the "Odeon".
In the play "The testament Giraudoux" she has successfully played the role of hydrangeas, but the play by Alexander Dumas in "Kin" - Anna Demby. After the premiere of "Keene", held February 18, 1868, Reviewer Le Figaro wrote: "Mademoiselle Sarah Bernhardt appears in eccentric costume, which further fuels the elements of rage, but her warm voice, extraordinary amazing voice penetrates the hearts of the audience . She curbed, subdued them, like a sweet Orpheus! "Well done Bernard, and the role of Zanetti in lyric and dramatic play by contemporary playwright Koppe" РџСЂРѕС…РѕР¶РёР№ "(1869). This is the role of a boy, young man. And Sarah was bad, gracefully angular, flat forms of uncomplicated women with unusually melodious, as the harp, voice, and made a sensation.
Sarah was a huge success in the drama of Shakespeare and Rasin. It was the idol of the students and received from the fans buketiki fialok, sonnets, poems ...
During the War of 1870, rather than leave with his family, Sarah Bernhardt stayed in the besieged Paris, and arranged in a theater "Odeon" hospital, fully devoting himself wounded, and refused even to his artistic rooms, all with a surprising ease, which shows the true courage, with the fun, without which a victim becomes unbearable. Once Sarah Bernhardt took the injured boy in hospital, who asked her to autograph a photo. He was nineteen years old, and the name of the future Marshal of France Ferdinand Fosh ...
Day 26 January, 1872 became the "Odeon" true actor′s art festival.
The emergence of Bernard in the role of the Queen in "Ryui Blazy" Victor Hugo was indeed a triumphal. "Thank you, thank you," - exclaimed the author, tseluya her hands after the premiere performance.
After the triumph at the "Odeon" Bernard returns to the "Comedy Frances." August 22, she was a huge success played Andromache. Her partner and beloved Mune-Syulli was simply amazing in the way Oresta.
Subsequently, the actress played Fedra, but with great success a second heroine tragedy - Aris. Then, wrote: "Who has not seen and not heard of Sarah Aris and Mune-Syulli in Hippolyte, he does not know that such a genius, youth and beauty!"
In Theater Comedy Frances Sara Bernard glittering in tragedies Rasin and Voltaire (especially - in the "Zaire") is like a touchstone for the actress in the line of tragic heroines. True, some critics pointed to the tragic lack of temperament, but still play in some scenes the actress gave an opportunity for connoisseurs to compare it with the theater Rachel.
In 1875, in a quiet green and quite prestigious Avenue de Villiers Sarah Bernhardt has built himself a mansion. The architect was fashionable in those years, Felix Eskale and interior decoration for home made hand and talent of dozens of artists and sculptors. Competing with each other, they paint the walls and ceilings, decorated with a ladder and a winter garden, invent original solutions to the interior.
Suddenly, Sarah Bernhardt inflamed passion for sculpture. In the workshop visited her friends: they sit around Sarah, sang, played the piano, vehemently arguing about politics - the actress has the most outstanding representatives of various parties. Sam Adolphe de Rothschild commissioned a bust of her.
Once she was told about the coming of Alexander Dumas. He brought the good news that graduated to "Comedy Frances" a play called "foreign", one of whose roles - the role of the Duchess de Setmon - like it is the best way. At that time, when the theater comedy Frances "rehearsing comedy" foreign ", in Paris, was a famous Italian actor Ernesto Rossi. He says:
"According to rumors, Dumas was in low spirits, and was afraid of the failure of his new play, play the main role in Foreign women was specially written for Sarah Bernhardt, designed for its appearance, structure of feelings, and nervichesky warehouse. However, the actress refused to play the heroine, preferring it to the role of the Countess, for Mademoiselle Kruazett. That is why it worked without any interest and carelessly. No one is saying a word, I have come to the theater and, unnoticed proskolznuv in lozhu, the following what is happening on stage. Actors rehearsing with enthusiasm, and only Sarah, holding the text itself, something of a diamond nose. Dumas, sitting next to the prompt-box, nervous and fidget of impatience in his chair. Rehearse the same scene, where foreign, breaking a cup of coffee, go home from the Marquis. Although Sarah Bernhardt and rehearsed in polsily yet was so natural and genuine, that seemed to be happening all by itself, that there are no games, no pre-thought and reflection. She talk to text with earthy negligence, care little about the picture of their movements, and left the scene through the middle door. Then Dumas, failed, got up from their seats and said: "Look, Sarah, if you so will play at the premiere, we lost."
"goon - I thought, perdu in the corner - you are not lost, but saved." Not penetrating into the nature of its heroine, Sarah on a whim, reached the merits, prior to its truth. Through her studio game play clothed in flesh. A few days later, was the premiere. All the predicted failure, and probably Sarah herself did not believe in success. But worth it to go on stage and go as she did at the rehearsal, the audience vzvyla in delight. The fate of "Foreign women" has been resolved. Sarah had not anticipated, and the affected public acceptance, inspiration and cleverly conveyed the role until the end. "
"Sarah Bernhardt was unlikely to any actress past or present - continues to Ernesto Rossi. - This is a completely new type of artist, a strange, if you like, but still new.
All of her works and even in his personal life affects eccentricity.
Premiere of "Ernani" Victor Hugo, which was held November 21, 1877, was a triumph for the author, and for all performers. The role of Ernani served Mune-Syulli. Bernard also played donyu Sol. After Victor Hugo′s play has sent her a letter: "Madame! You were adorable in their greatness. You moved me, the old warrior, to the extent that in one place, when moved, and charmed the audience applauded you, I wept. Give you these tears, you istorgli from my breast, and bow before you. "
The new success at the "Comedy" finally made a favorite of Sarah Bernhardt public. In 1877 she became the soseterkoy. Her colleagues have received is not without jealousy.
Meanwhile, Bernard has decided to take up painting: "I was able to draw a little, and I especially was able to color. To get started, I made two or three small paintings, and then wrote a portrait of my dear Guerard. Alfred Stevens found that he did very well, but George Claire praised me, and advised to continue my studies. "
During the Paris exhibition of 1878, Bernard every day rose into the air in the balloon tied Mr Zhiffara. Then, together with scientists, she has committed air travel, showing the fearless character of Sarah Bernhardt. Balloon was raised to a height of 2600 meters from the ground. Magic flight inspired Sarah to write a charming novella "Among the Clouds."
In 1879, "Frances Comedy" tour in London. Sarah Bernhardt became favorite of the British public. After the "Fedra" she satisfied ovation, "without parallel in the history of British theater." One of the scenes, Sarah Bernhardt was turned into a complete "picture", with the same content as the masterpiece painting: after a frank conversation with her confidante Enonoy Fedra "sits in a chair, on a calm mind and half-like, and it freezes in a fixed posture with the extended hands, with eyes passe - it gives a wonderful image of the past like the death of the deceased woman ... "
"Frances comedy" returns to Paris. And soon Sarah Bernhardt for the second time away from the theater. It happened after the premiere of "adventuress" (April 17, 1880).
Sarah СЂРІР°Р»Р°СЃСЊ from the theater, which seemed to her academic and distant from anything new in the theatrical arts. The Paris audience, too tired, gradually became accustomed to the noble seduction itself and yawn of boredom, when he heard about the success of the next Bernard.
But she could not let this audience it is becoming their own theater impresario and company, and any failure to force her to sell jewelry, costumes, and even your own house. During these periods, she went to Denmark, London, where the attention of the Prince of Gaelic open access to her home in the most aristocratic families.
And each time she returned home even more rich than before. A man in the street do not forgive, greedy sensation to journalists accusing her of greed, "top-drawer" to ignore it. But ... only until the next success, after which the great actress forgave all sins.
Finally, she went on tour to America, where the contract was to play eight pieces: "Ernani," Fedra "," Adrienne Lecouvreur, " Frufru "," lady with the camellias, " Sphinx " "foreign" and "Princess Georges. Bernard ordered thirty-six suits for a total of 61 thousand francs.
The tour lasted seven months. During this time the actress has visited fifty cities, and gave one hundred fifty-six performances. Most of the time was "The Lady with the Camellias" by A. Dumas - Bernard played it 65 times.
The role of Marguerite Gautier was one of the best actresses in the repertoire. A well-known Russian critic A. Kugel wrote this masterpiece: "He is remembered for the gentle femininity and grace the first acts of grace and style of explanation with his father Duval, for this, some quite exceptional expressiveness of her hands and weeping howl back and all less than in scenes of domestic experience and great sorrow. "
In 1881, Sarah met with the advisor to the Greek mission in Paris on 26-year-old Jacques beautiful Lady (now his name - Aristide Dame), a friend of their younger sister Joan, also an actress.
His love Adventures earned him the reputation of the new Casanova and the Marquis de new Garden. At the time of their acquaintance Sarah so lost in the face of the triumphant beauty, and self audacity that even allowed him to smoke in their presence, which is not permitted to anyone. That lady in a few months, will be her husband. More it in the marriage is not entered.
Encouraged by the success of Sarah Bernhardt in the ocean, her American impresario Zharett proposed to actress a six-month trip to Europe.
... The way the tour was lying from Belgium to the Netherlands, then to Denmark and Norway, through Poland - to Vienna and Budapest (Germany Sarah avoided since the Franco-Prussian War, which resulted in an extremely acute sense of patriotism), then in the Kingdom of Romania in Iasi, from there - to Odessa. As a personal retinue of Sarah Bernhardt rode her constant confidante Madame Guerard (nicknamed Sudarushka) tirewoman Felicio Claude and footman. And here it must be said that in a fantastic vzdornosti nature and the vagaries of the actress, as written in the volume of jokes, and loved her were her faithful servant all his life and family. The English actress Patrick Campbell wrote in his memoirs: "The world knows of her genius and her great courage, but not everyone knows, with what emphasis it relates to his friends, but love for them lies in the depths of her heart ..."
Impresario Shyurman scrupulously cared that every railway station in advance of the telegram was given an hour of arrival, Madame Sarah, cables included in the cost of advertising. News flash spread around the city, and thousands of the curious flocked to the train station. The arrival of the train met the shouts and flowers. It was welcoming speech. The door wagon Sarah Bernhardt besieging fans, and the strongest of the actors, along with impresario habitually paving her way in a crowd, of course, not without the help of police, and Russia - Cossack horse. The crowd followed the actress to the hotel and cost only after the Sarah Bernhardt three or four went to the balcony of your room (balcony provided too) - to greet his people. So it was in all the cities of the tour.
Sarah Bernhardt brought into Russia favorite shows: "lady with the camellias," "Sphinx," "Adrienne Lecouvreur." It struck theatrical audience elegance and romantic style of performance.
The talented actress, her skill and loud glory forced playwrights to write plays for her, like making them by the standards of her talent, taking into account the peculiarities of its style of game. She composed a lush, psevdoistoricheskie drama, and more specifically, melodrama, Victor Sardou. He began his alliance with Sarah Bernhardt Russian play "Fedora." The scene in St. Petersburg and Paris. The main characters were nihilist Boris Ivanov, who killed Count Goryshkina, and fell in love with his beautiful widow of Count Fedor. History ends tragically ...
To get the maximum from "Fedora", needed an actress, which, actually, in this play it, and inspired, who wrote in the main role - Sarah Bernhardt. Later Sardou wrote for the great actresses of the play "Tosca" (1887), "witch" (1903).
Starting with the 1890-ies a significant place in the repertoire of the actress took the role in neoromanticheskih AMD Rostand, also written specifically for her: "Princess Dreams" (1895), "Eaglet" (1900), "Samarityanka" (1897).
Sarah Bernhardt willingly served in men′s roles (Busy in the "passer" Koppe, Lorenzachcho in Lorenzachcho "Musset, Duke Reyhshtadtsky in РћСЂР»РµРЅРєРµ" Rostand, and others). Among them was and the role of Hamlet (1899). This allowed the actress travestirovanny Hamlet demonstrate the perfection of high technology and "eternal youth" of his art (the role of Sarah Bernhardt played Hamlet when she was fifty-three years). The tragic prince was played by Sarah Bernhardt in a truly Parisian style and elegance. Her Hamlet was very young and feminine beauty. French theater critics praised the new role of "the divine Sarah," while noting that some Shakespearean character is replaced by graceful and vivid figure of the wicked and a daring pazha, "which shines in the eyes instead of mourning Prince poetic nonsense."
In 1891 Bernard makes triumphal tour of Australia.
Then comes the second time in Russia. At this time three of its repertoire have attracted the attention of theatrical Russia: "Fedra" Rasin, virgin of Orleans "Barbie and" Cleopatra "Sardou (the latter piece was written for Sarah Bernhardt in explanation of the tragedy of Shakespeare′s" Antony and Cleopatra " ;).
The image of the Egyptian queen, embodied by Sarah Bernard, was created with a great master. The scene with the messengers admired stage technique, the complete grace and artistic beauty. In compliance with Fedra Sarah Bernhardt had so wanted to stage the truth of Russian feelings and well-known rhymes Rasin lilis from the scene almost like natural speech. In many places, its role as an actress struck dramatic force. This aesthetic and artistic power stroke did not leave it in the most tragic moments ... This performance led to a Russian audience enthusiastic responses.
Leaving the second theater comedy Frances, "Sarah Bernhardt has repeatedly tried to create its own theater, becoming the first theater in the chapter" Port of St. Maarten, then in 1893 it acquired the theater "Renaissance", as in 1898 - the theater at Chatelet Square, known as the "Theater of Sarah Bernhardt."
At the time of the scandal involving the so-called Dreyfus affair, 15 Nov., 1897 Bernard sent to Zola to tell him about the fait of injustice and call for a fight! Emile Zola agrees with it. November 25, he writes: "The truth is moved in the path, and nothing it does not stop ...", and Jan 13, 1898 - the famous" I accuse ". Immediately the house is surrounded by a crowd of Zola hostile demonstrators. Appears Sarah Bernhardt. Her credibility so great that the demonstrators dispersed silently. Sarah Bernhardt was at risk. It befalls not only the press, but - it is much more important - her adored son, exquisite Maurice belonged to the Patriotic League. They quarreled, and a year of not talking. Love of justice triumphed over maternal love, even love unparalleled since Sarah Bernhardt was incomparable mother, until the last day she worked to cover the costs of his charming sons - zavsegdataya Zhokeyskogo club and, more importantly, gambling houses.
Sarah Bernhardt, and admired aristocratic audience, and simple human. They can add Proust and James, and Ualda Dickens, Twain, and Hugo, who enthusiastically commented on her talent. Stanislavski believed art Bernard example of technical perfection.
Her acting skills cause aesthetic delight its completion. The manner of playing Sarah Bernhardt was based primarily on external virtuoso technique - in the expressiveness and flexibility of gestures, poses, movements, splendid possession melodious voice and an elaborate system of intonation nuances of speech. Her art has been a wonderful embodiment of the aesthetic principles of the school presentation. " The talented actress, her sharp eye and a brilliant technique allowed her to play convincingly, and even to touch the audience in roles that do not require the tragic magnitude of thoughts and passions.
"I think that drama predominantly feminine art - writes in his book" My Life "Sarah Bernhardt. - In fact, the desire to decorate themselves, to hide true feelings, love and the desire to attract attention - the weakness that often put women in reproach and that has shown leniency. The same weaknesses in the man is disgusting. "
Chekhov and Shaw were opponents. Shaw, for example, describing the game in the drama actress Musset "Lorenzachcho" refers to the interesting performance of selected scenes, and regretted that the actress did not understand the complexity and controversial nature Lorenzachcho, which combines "a demon and an angel and is horrified to depravity meanness, and the world ... "According to Shaw, to extract from the text of the concept image of Madame Bernard has not been able to." Chekhov also wrote: "Every breath Sarah Bernhardt, her tears, her dying convulsions, all of the game is nothing like the excellent and clever zauchenny lesson."
Bernard has repeatedly tried to revive the dead and the era of separate theatrical productions. So it was with "Esther" in 1905, where all the roles played by women, and the Sarah performed the role of the king Assuera.
During a tour in Brazil, performing the role of Tosca (which was to commit suicide, rushed down the castle tower), Bernard has fallen from a great height, and nobody thought that hedge it with mattresses.
The actress injured knee, causing her suffering since childhood: in seven years, she jumped from a window in the hope that the mother will take her to himself.
In 1906, Bernard gives a performance in an American city Vado. There even were the cowboys who came from Texas to see her "Camille" ( "lady with the Camellias"), created from the tears and the champagne, "as he wrote G. James. One cowboy said he proskakal on horseback 300 miles to get to the presentation. And it demonstrates his dramatic repertoire in the Wild West to the two thousand spectators, and had to go on stage, dragging a sick leg.
In 1908, held its last concert tour in Russia. At the same posters of Sarah Bernhardt (in 64 years!) Means the same "Lady with the Camellias", the two play Sardou, written for her - "witch" and "Tosca" - then "Sappho" in the novel Dode, play "Adrienne Lecouvreur" and the three male roles: set up for her Rostanom "Eaglet", Zhakas in Shutah "Zamakoisa and Shakespearean Hamlet, shedshy its benefit (the first act, followed by" Fedra "Rasin).
"You want to know my opinion about Sarah Bernhardt? I find that it is phenomenal in that time and maintained poborola charming femininity, "- said newsmen actress Maria Savina.
Now Sarah Bernhardt played even more to semitones. From her few clicks on the scene the impression of a music movement. It is not played throughout the play, but selects a few points, which invested all his skill. There was more awesome breaks and bends the body, it was not affecting the unexpected rhythms recitation.
"In my more vivid picture of Russia, - said Sarah Bernhardt on arrival in St. Petersburg - as the beautiful north country, with its troika, which I love, invigorating frost, and white, white snow. But the coldness of your nature to forget, however, when dealing with your kindness and your enthusiasm. x3c...x3e I love Russian literature. From your new writers I am very familiar with the Maxim Gorky. Of the artists you met Shalyapin. I worship their versatile talent ... "
Sarah Bernhardt was defiantly exotic causes, shocking. It has been a rapid manner, but as toilets stressed its leanness, so, armed with whip, it happens, bring your riot before frenzied grace.
Sarah Bernhardt has written something like a manual for artists, two novel ( "Little idol" and "Beautiful Double"), four pieces for the theater ( "Adrienne Lecouvreur," "Acceptance," "The heart of man," "Theater in the field of honor ").
Crowds of men, including Sigmund Freud, was in love with her mind and exotic aura. American novelist Henry James called it "a genius of self, the embodiment of female success." It is much loved, and it was a novel sensation. Hischnitsa, even in an age when a woman must be calm, she had a lot of love relationships, calling himself a "great lovers of peace." During a lengthy tour of the U.S. 66-year-old actress met with an American of Dutch descent Tellegenom Lu, who was younger than her 35 years. Their relationship lasted four years. Tellegen later called it the best time in my life!
It is quite peculiar make up. It went from her usual style of the French had subsequently actresses heavily painted ears to Otten pallor person. It is make up a lot, that does not make up it was like the finger tips, which she painted and then the game takes on a particular finger charm.
Bernard was the first great actress to appear on the screen. It happened in 1900 when Paris was demonstrated fonorama, provided the projection of images and sound, Sarah was filmed in a scene "Duel of Hamlet."
At the beginning of the 1908 studio film d′ar "screen" Tosca "with the participation of Sarah Bernhardt, and Lucien Gitri Paul Mune. The famous actress was so dissatisfied with this first experience, that with the support Victorien Sardou has ensured that the picture is not released to the screen.
Failure in "Tosca" alienated Sarah Bernhardt of the cinema, but the constant financial pressure brought her back to the screen. While in the grip of his creditors, pursuing her until her death, she agreed to perform the role of Margarita Gauthier.
Young Duval played Paul chaplains.
Seeing himself on screen, the actress will no doubt find that it is far from charming. Even told that she fainted from fright. But she could not, as was the case with "Tosca, to withdraw the film from rolling, it has already been sold worldwide, and in particular the United States. Raspolnevshaya actress, for which the year put its brutal seal is extremely far from the image of a young and charming girl hectic created Dumas son.
Nevertheless, "The Lady with the Camellias" (1912) enjoys a worldwide success. Bernard has received numerous invitations removed in the new film. First, she refused. "I have not been withdrawn - she said in the press - and gave the word is not removed for any company, except for" Film d′ar ", which I linked contract."
But soon the company had made her some relief. In May 1912 Sarah Bernhardt went to London to play in the new movie "Queen Elizabeth". Directors of the paintings were Henry and Louis Defonten Merkanton, the trusted friend of Sarah Bernhardt, for many years consisted of her troupe. "Elizabeth" had a significant impact on the style of Hollywood. In 1922, major Hollywood actors in France sent a message to mark the tenth anniversary of the film.
A huge worldwide success of "Queen Elizabeth" has created a name Merkantonu Louis. The Great Sarah expressed her desire to remain an only in his paintings. He shot her in "Adrienne Lecouvreur." After the movie "French Mother" (1915) for the product Rishpena Jean Bernard agreed to a role in the new movie Merkantona - "Jeanne Dore" on the play by Tristan Bernard. Another band with the actress′ His best case "(1916) was shown to Queen ...
It is staggering the letter, which she once sent to his doctor, referring to him with a request: "I ask, or to amputate my leg, or do with it that you want to ... If you refuse, I have a backache knee and then make you do it. " In 1915, with the amputated leg, but still wishing to benefit the people, Sarah Bernard goes to the front. It is accompanied by Marshal Ferdinand Fosh.
Many years after leaving "Comedy Frances" Sarah Bernhardt had to go back to the drama Rasin. The patient and the old, Sarah Bernard chooses to assume the role of Atal, which appears only two times on the stage and dignity can not climb with nosilok, where the actress met the last years of life.
"The last time I had seen her in the role of Athaliah - Jean Cocteau wrote the book" Portraits, the memories. "- She had a leg amputated. vykatili her on stage in a cart negros. It recite sleep Athaliah. come to line: "To make up for years of irreparable harm," she vozdela and pressed his hands to the chest in the ring and bowing relating this verse to him and apologized to the audience for what is still there in front of her. Hall jumped up, zagrohotal ... x3c...x3e Mrs. Sarah Bernhardt was a model and a game to the limit in life and on stage. The whole world was captured by her ecstasy. She felt hectic, could be due to the fact that she had a habit trifle and hold the handkerchief to her lips, as in romantic scenes plameneli her lips as roses. It recite measured, strong tremulous voice. Suddenly, breaking the rhythm, ubystryaya speech to give to some place of special meaning, the more striking that is born, suddenly, on a whim. "
Sarah Bernhardt died March 26, 1923 in Paris.