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RANEVSKAYA Faina Grigorievna

Photo - Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna
«Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna»

Russia actress. Stage roles: Vassa Zheleznova ( "Vassa Zheleznova"), Verdi ( "Chanterelle"), Savage ( "The Curious Savage"), Lucy Cooper ( "Next - silence") and others shot in the movies: ; Vaseline, " Dream "," foundling "," Spring "," Easy Life ", etc.

Faina G. Feldman (Ranevskaya) was born 15 (27) in August 1896 in Taganrog. Her father, Hirsch Feldman, was the richest man in town. Hirsch Feldman fortunes made in real estate operations, and besides, he owned a jewelry factories, engaged in the oil business. Mother an actress, before her marriage Valova, passionately fond of music, was a quiet man and vulnerable. The family lived in a large two-story house.

In fifteen years Faina Feldman made friends with a famous actress Alice UNC, resting in Evpatoria.

"At the end of the school decided to go on stage - wrote F. Ranevskaya. - The decision to leave the scene gave rise to a complete break with the family, which opposed the fact that I became an actress. In 1915 I went to Moscow to go to drama school ... "

In Moscow, Faina treated in various theater schools, but always got rejected. Feldman worried before fainting. Stuttering she started with the first words. Finally she was able to get paid to drama school. The money she took from the house, soon ran out, and those that she earned the participation of the crowd at the circus, clearly not enough. My father took pity and sent her a translation. But when she went outside, the wind snatched the money from her. Faina only sigh: "What a pity - flew away ..." Upon learning about the case with money, some of her friends said: "This is Ranevskaya," The Cherry Orchard, "only she could. You - Ranevskaya!" , and Faina agreed - it would henceforth Ranevskaya. However, the actress talked of something else: "I Ranevskaya was primarily because of all dropped. I have all fell from the hands. It′s always been."

Theater Moscow shocked Feldman. "The first teacher was the Moscow Art Theater - wrote the actress. - In the years of World War I lived in Moscow, and looked several times all the performances, marching in time, Stanislavsky in Krutitskoe see and be seen in front of him until the end of days. It was inconceivable that something. I see his hands, back, eyes can see the wonderful - it haunts me for several decades. Do not forget Massalitinova, Leonidova, Kachalova, do not forget anything ... "

With the help of dancer Catherine Geltzer, to which she appealed for help, was able to get Ranevskaya′s dacha near Moscow theater in Malakhovka, where in summer time played many famous actors. Outputs in the crowd, the role without words for 20 rubles a month ...

Once she went to the famous tragedian I. Pevtsov, fulfill the main role, with the words "What shall I play?" "You simply must love me very much. And let everything that happens to me, you touch and concern.

Photo - Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna
«Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna»

That′s all, "- replied the actor. After the performance he heard the desperate cries and saw sitting on the floor girl, the one ... "I am so fond of you all night" - she sobbed. "Remember this girl, friends, - said the troubled singers. - It will be a real actress. "

After many failures, finally, netalantlivuyu and the ugly girl on the theatrical stock took a 35 rubles a month, "with his wardrobe on the role of" heroine-koket "in Kerch, in the entreprise Ladovsky. Performances charges not brought, and the theater went bankrupt. Ranevskaya moved from Kerch to Feodosia, where she played in the entreprise Novozhilov, which at the end of the season ran from the actors, and not paying. Of Theodosia girl moved to Kislovodsk.

In the spring of 1917 the family Feldman on his own ship "St. Nicholas" emigrated to Turkey. Ranevskaya often asked why she stayed. The actress replied that she can not imagine life without theater, but rather the Russian theater nothing.

Since the work of the provincial theaters, it did not stack. Without money, without engagement Ranevskaya moved to Rostov-na-Donu. She came to the well-known provincial actress Leontievna Paul Wulff and begged him to give any role, just to be with her at one stage. Take the petitioners in the troupe was not possible, Woolf took her to the family.

Lessons Woolf became, in fact, the only "theater school" Ranevskaya. Despite the difference in age (sixteen years), student and teacher relationships have grown into a strong friendship for life.

Many who worked with Ranevskaya remember her crushing sighs after each performance: "Today I played so badly. I′ve never been so badly did not play. Usually colleagues tried to comfort him, and delight the audience said to the contrary, but she was terrified of bad play.

Ranevskaya toured many provincial cities and changed more than one theater, playing about 300 (!) Roles, before director Tairov invited her to the Moscow Chamber Theater on Zina role in the play "Pathetique Sonata".

The actress has trumped a variety of roles: Charlotte in "Cherry Orchard", Olga and Natasha in "Three Sisters", Glaffra Firsovnu in the "last victim", Nastya in The Lower Depths ", Lady Milford in" Intrigue and Love " , Masha in "Living Corpse," Tweety in "Love Spring". Finally, she met with Vasso Zheleznova, when in 1935 the Moscow Art director E. Telesheva started rehearsals Gorky′s play in TSTKA (Theater Army). According to eyewitnesses, Ranevskaya made simultaneously in five qualities: the prosecutor, defense counsel, judges, victim and defendant. Among those who are similarly assessed if work actress - Yu Yuzovsky, one of the most astute researchers of drama and theater, uzrevshy in this debut of the birth of a new, extraordinary talent.

Over the years she starred in a total of twenty-four films.

Photo - Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna
«Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna»

And no leading role. "You know what to act in films? - Asked Ranevskaya. And she answered: - Imagine that you wash in the bath, and there lead a tour.

The first invited her in his film a young Mikhail Romm, when he received permission for the first independent staging a silent film. Thus, in promorozhennom pavilion, "recalls a giant cellar" born "Vaseline" (1934) by Guy de Maupassant short story, where Ranevskaya played Madame Loiseau - the living embodiment of bourgeois hypocrisy, false virtue and false patriotism. G. Faina literally fell in love with the director. "Everything he did was talented, captivating. Everything in it bribed, and the wonderful taste, and subtle understanding mopassanovskoy stories, its atmosphere. Michael I. helped me and as a director and as a teacher. Sensitive, friendly, he was loved by all who worked with him. "

Ranevskaya often invited to the film, where even her role was not, and actress of a single phrase of the script created. In 1937, the director Igor Savchenko, invited her into the picture "Duma about the Cossack Golota." Ranevskaya asked what role, he replied: "Raleigh, in fact, you do not. But very much want to see you in my film. In the scenario is pop, but if you agree to be removed, I can make it a priest′s wife. The actress replied: "Well, if you are not sorry about your butt, it can be turned into a lady. I agree. "

Directed put in front of her cage with birds and said: "Well, talk to them, tell everything you would dream, improvise." And Ranevskaya has access to the birds with the words: "My dear Pisces, you all jump, jump, rest does not give." Then he led her to zakutku, where stood the pig: "Well, and now a talk with the pigs." The actress said: "Well, you my dear children, eat health ... A statement at this time shot ...

In 1939 Ranevskaya played a role tailor′s wife Ida in espionage tape "Error Engineer Kochin (1939). Together with her brilliant Lyubov Orlova already a national star of the screen.

G. Faina remember the general public mainly for small episodes in the movies, but thank her for this was truly popular. She herself had invented the famous phrase in the script "foundling" - "Mula not nervous about me." After the release of new film "Foundling" (1939, directed by Mikhail Romm), in which she starred as Lely, - her step, Moscow could not step - immediately Ranevskaya surrounded by boys, shouting: "Mula, not me nervous "Faina Grigor said:" My God! How I hated how badly hated the role, which brought me success! "

In cinema Ranevskaya only once managed to discover the powerful tragic basis of their talent. Mikhail Romm again invited Ranevskaya in his film "Dream" (1941). During the shooting actress was in admiration of the director, who, in turn, from an excellent actress. The role of Roses Skorokhod, rude, greedy mistress of a shabby boarding house, in a pathetic immense love for his son - a scoundrel and pacifiers, is one of the masterpieces of world′s Film.

Rostislav Plyatt, who played with Ranevskaya, recalled that the Faina G.

was at that time a young woman, with a flexible and lean figure. But she represented her heroine a massive, heavy. The actress found the "elephant" legs and a hard tread, which wrapped filming in front of each leg bandages.

In 1944 an American magazine wrote about the film: "The White House now saw the United States President Roosevelt, he said:" The Dream ", Ranevskaya, very talented. In my opinion, this is one of the greatest films of the globe. Ranevskaya - brilliant tragic actress. "According to his wife, Dreiser, novelist, too, was shocked by the game Faina GRIGORIEVNA wanted to write about Ranevskaya, but because his death did not have time. Alas, the roles that are comparable in scale and dramatic with Rosa Skorokhod, a Ranevskaya longer was.

"The actress Ranevskaya, - said the critic V. Pimenov, - owns two higher mysteries of acting. It makes you cry, it makes you laugh. "

On the work in the film "The Wedding" (1944), where Ranevskaya played the mother of the bride, herself an actress recalled: "My Calvary! Filmed in Moscow and hungry military, of course, only at night - in Likhov alley at night, and worked there documentary. I get up under an umbrella - from the ceiling constantly dripped.

In 1947, Ranevskaya removed in the movie "Cinderella" on the play by Eugene Schwartz in the role of stepmother. Schwartz, who was very jealous of each written to his word, was present at the shootings. "And it is, can you imagine - recalls Ranevskaya - will complement a scene preparations for the ball - well, remember when I was plain enough to the head feathers - a replica of the whole:" I run, fuss, mine, and to ensure charmed! "He - wonderful - I was constantly praised, but in the published script of my inserts are not included.

During filming, she lost weight and grimiruyas, cruelly treated her face. When she was asked not to torment her, she angrily replied: "For an actress there is no inconvenience, if it is necessary for the role."

Also in 1947, she played with Orlova G. Alexandrova in the film "Spring". Character Ranevskaya - Margarita Lvovna - is compassion. Her naive belief in its irresistible ( "Yes, beauty - is a terrible force"), absorption of the senses is a novel with Bubentsovym, as if parodying a line the main characters, a bitter disappointment when it became apparent that the bells are not keen on her, and her living area .

Almost half a century Ranevskaya worked in the Moscow theater. Six - at the Theater Army, as many have Okhlopkova, eight have Ravenskih. And almost thirty Yuri Zavadsky in the Theater of the Moscow Soviet. Hence Ranevskaya much time left, came back and again went out.

The most memorable work in the theater - Birdy ( "Chanterelle" L. Hellman) in the Moscow Theater of Drama, grandmother ( "Trees die standing" L. Casoni) in the Moscow Theater. AS Pushkin, Savage ( "The Curious Savage" by J.

Photo - Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna
«Ranevskaya Faina Grigorievna»

Patrick), Lucy Cooper ( "Next - silence" V. Delmar), Filitsiata ( "Truth is good, but happiness is better" by Alexander Ostrovsky) in Theater . Moscow City Council. Ranevskaya was an actress broad creative range - it is equally checkered history and bright comedic roles and the role of profound drama.

Her favorite partner Osip Abdulov said: "Faina - and the heroine, and travesty, and the grand koket, and noble father, and hero-lover, and the fop, and a simpleton, and the soubrette, and dramatic old woman and a villain. All the Role it alone. Ranevskaya - character actress! Crap! It has an entire troupe! "

Faina G. thoroughly preparing for roles. She never allowed to rewrite her role: she copied itself - carefully, slowly in a school notebook, meticulously. Very large vydumschitsa, she could not stand when actors take liberties with the text. At the show has consistently come in two hours, long makeup.

In the theater Ranevskaya loved, but feared. Relentlessly demanding of themselves, she wanted the same boundless dedication and their partners. Faina G. refused to play a major role in the play "The Curious Savage," when I left the life of her young partner B. Beroev, replaced by actress found it impossible. And this despite the fact that Savage - one of the favorite roles Ranevskaya in which she could give vent to all the richness of its artistic nature - from the eccentric colors before the tragic notes.

In "Storm" Ranevskaya created a memorable image Manka speculator selling typhoid underwear (a scene examination at the Commissioner Faina G. wrote myself), so outplayed the other artists that ... this episode a few seasons has been removed from the play: the director seemed intolerable "preponderance" of admiration in the spectators′ side of the performer negative role.

In 1961 Ranevskaya starred in the film "Beware, my grandmother," and in the same year she was named a People′s Artist of the USSR.

In the film "Easy Life" (1965) she played "Queen Margot", a clandestine agent of the company dry cleaning at home and speculator in combination. She often offered to withdraw, but it rarely agree. Ranevskaya too demanding approached scenarios and roles. "The actor′s life to luck. More than any other. Actor depend. Choose the role he was not given. I played a hundredth part of what she could. "

One of the best theater roles Ranevskaya - Lucy Cooper to play by Delmar B. "Then - silence," where the actress was a partner RJ Plyatt. Her heroine has become a burden to their adult children in their very wealthy homes is not the place for two tender loving old - father and mother. And the worst thing happens to Lucy, her own children being separated from her husband. Ranevskaya "gush" framework written role, she raises a family melodrama to the height of tragedy. Even in this desperate situation the Lucy remains in force and purity of soul, she is ready to become a servant in the house of his son, just would not be separated with a sick husband, and when and in so doing, it refused, to prevent the latest infamy children - she goes into a home for the elderly, taking the children with an oath that the father did not know about it.

This performance hall has always been in a special excited, moved, shocked.

Tears of the audience, standing ovations ... But there were also incidents. One day after the end of the play came to Ranevskaya admirer of her talent and asked: "Excuse me for an indiscreet question, how old are you?" - "Saturday will be 115" - responsible Ranevskaya. Asked simply fainted with delight: "In such years, and so play! .."

She still managed to appear in the TV "Then - silence." However, Ranevskaya do not know what it off. Photos are taken by hidden cameras without additional light.

October 19, 1983 Ranevskaya has also left the scene, with notice of its decision to the Director theater Mossovet. "Old age - it′s just disgusting. I think it is ignorance of God, when he can survive to old age. Lord, have all gone, and I still live. Birman [famous actress] and she died, and from there I did not expect. Scary when you′re inside the eighteen, when admire the beauty of music, poetry, painting, and you have time, you did not have time, and you just start to live! "

Her personal life was like to live a fun, crazy town, "as her heroine-maid from the movie" Spring ". She never married. Feminists love to quote accurate phrase Ranevskaya. For example, when the actress was asked why women are so much time and money paid to his appearance, rather than the development of intelligence, she replied: "Because the blind men are much less than smart." G. Faina close friend of Akhmatova.

In the last years of life Ranevskaya much hurt. Doctors who regularly visited her, found a strong disorder in the lungs, wondered what she breathing? On this question Ranevskaya already been pre-prepared response: "I breathe Pushkin ..."

She tried to persuade the public to note eightieth birthday. "No, - she refused. - You to me now saying a speech. And what are you going to speak at my funeral? "

At the end of her life she kept repeating: "I became so old that started to forget their memories." Faina Ranevskaya died on July 19, 1984. Ranevskaya once bitterly said: "I′m mad silly enough to live life."

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