1. Actors
  2. Photo: Sofia LorenSophia Loren, Shikolone real name, was born September 20, 1934, in Clinic of Queen Margaret. Mother Sophia — Romilda Wilanow, comes from the fishing village of Pozzuoli, arrived in Rome, where he was to meet with Ricardo Shikolone. When Romilda pregnant,…
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  1. Actors
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SALVINI Tommaso

Photo - Salvini Tommaso
«Salvini Tommaso»

Italian actor. Creativity Salvini - Peak Stage Art of XIX century. Among roles: Otello (Otello), Saul ( "Saul"), Ingomar ( "Son of forests), Corrado (" Civilian death "), etc.

Tommaso Salvini Cesare was born Jan. 1, 1829 in Milan. His father Giuseppe came from a military family. After receiving a diploma, he became a teacher of literature and calligraphy. " Disorder and confusion in his life made a carnival in 1824 in Leghorn, where the troupe performed Tommaso Dzokki. Salvini memoryless fell in love with the daughter of actress and Dzokki Andzholy Pontsy 16-year-old Gulelminu. As a result, Giuseppe theater dedicated himself and his wife bore him three sons. Younger, at the insistence of a grandfather, called Tommaso.

In early 1831, after an accident Gulelmina died. Children have lost parents in the care of the mother. They then lived in Florence, then in other places, depending on the route troupes. In Florence Tommaso fathers teachers attended classes at the church of San Giovannini, except arithmetic and history, which he loved, and they taught Latin.

In summer 1840 Tommaso got to play with the famous actor Luigi Vestre. After many years Salvini wrote in the memoirs: "When I returned to classes in Florence, the way this man did not leave me on the pages of every book and every book I seen a person between the lines Luigi Vestre. I heard the sounds of the voice, which made me both laugh and cry! "

In 1842 Giuseppe Salvini, was adopted as the first actor in the troupe of Bon-Berlaffa, and Tommaso joined his father. Once in Forli, he replaced the ill singer role Paskuino (Harlequin) in the play "Interesting Women". The debut was successful, his remarks were accompanied by gales of laughter and applause of the spectators. Junior Salvini began entrusting the role of servants, Harlequin. To the amazement of others, it is so easy usnaschal game latstsi different severity and funny, like always, and only those involved.

Giuseppe Salvini, in order to give her son a strong teacher, joined in 1843 as the "second lead" actor in the troupe famous Gustavo Modena. Listened Tommaso, Modena he was pleased: "You′re the one I was looking for!"

In 1844 for the younger Salvini moved all the roles "of the first young actor." But soon he was left without the support of his father, who died from an illness. The young man stood with dignity, this blow of fate. By limiting itself to everyone in it for three years to settle all debts Giuseppe.

One year later Salvini was adopted at the "first-and second-lovers" in the Royal Neapolitan theater troupe "Fiorentino". The first year in the new company gave him nothing, and Salvini, breaking a three-year contract, becomes the company Koltellini - Domenikoni. He was "the first young actor" and "first amorozo, was immediately assigned salary of three thousand lire. Moreover, he obtained the exclusive right to play David in "Saul" and the main role in "Oreste."

Luigi Tommaso Domenikoni handed a folder with a thirty-six roles, they have to prepare and play in the post in 1847. It seemed that this was madness - every day new role! But Tommaso copes with a difficult task. For the first benefit, he chooses "Oresta. "Remember that Orest Hamlet, in a sense, the classical period, a judge of the killers of his father, he is action and anger, not a hint of melancholy, as if the character cast in one piece, it should be clear from the first moment," - his mentor Domenikoni.

Then came the great day of the premiere. Gallery chock-full. All see a coveted new Oresta.

The first words Oresta - Salvini heard a sudden gust delight: "Pilad, here it is, my kingdom. O happiness! "And that they had the power of truth, that the audience broke out enthusiastic shouts and two-ovation.

Photo - Salvini Tommaso
«Salvini Tommaso»

The wave of enthusiasm rushes to the young actor playing in the unusual rhythm of the new, fresh feeling fascination and beauty of voice. The enthusiasm to grow. In the fourth and fifth acts, where the avenger suffers, madness, and punishes, the enthusiasm reached a high heat. Applause not smolkayut. Rome recognized the 18-year-old actor Salvini tragic.

Then it is time to reflect. Salvini felt that he lacked knowledge of classical literature. He began to read translations of Shakespeare, after the "barbarous name of" managed fairly "razberedit his imagination."

The debut in Shakespeare′s "Zaire" was held in Bologna, where Salvini was delayed after the carnival in 1853, to fight with a well-known bilyardistom. Passionate sportsman - swimmer and fencer - Salvini was a champion in billiards. In Bologna, was the troupe Dzannoni. Tommaso entrepreneur persuaded to play in several productions, including "Zaire." The success of the actor was unforgettable.

In 1856, Salvini concluded a contract for the Lenten season with the King of entrepreneurs Cesare Dondini. He joined the company as "an absolute hero of the first with the right choice of roles." This successful year for him Tommaso put on the stage two Shakespearean way, and met with the actress who became his wife - clementines Katstsoloy. They played together "Life in pink", "Arfistku", "lady with the camellias ...

It should be noted that it is the disciples of Modena - Salvini and Rossi - the credit belongs to the revival of Shakespeare on the Italian scene. Salvini was convinced that Otello jealous no more than can be jealous of any man love his wife.

The premiere was held in the province of Vicenza, as a sort of dress rehearsal before a performance in Venice. But, as in Vicenza, and then in Venice, Shakespeare′s tragedy was a modest success. The audience called for "Zaire."

Tommaso refused to play throughout the season so desired "Zaire" and declared "Hamlet." Salvini later wrote that in "Hamlet" embodies the superiority of thought over action. It feels and plays it to the inherent clear, specific and concise manner. In short, he set out to show people, devoured by a passion, persecuted and vlekomogo irresistible power of destiny.

"Hamlet" was in Venice shortly after Otello through perseverance Tommaso Salvini. Danish Prince was unable otmstit for Venetian Moor. Both tragedies were taken audience politely, respectfully, but without enthusiasm.

From Venice Dondini troupe traveled to Rome, where Tommaso again plays a character and Hamlet. Theater lomitsya from the audience. "Shakespeare - wrote in his" Memoirs "Salvini, - it has no taste, but they could not refrain from visiting the theater." Four seasons in a row, the actor put his benefit "Otello." And he achieved that, arrival in Rome asked him: "When will Otello? Salvini admitted: "... the character was the favorite in the character, I had the greatest success. Otello was like a promissory note payable to bearer on which the audience paid accurately, whenever the play was in the theater. "

In 1857 the troupe Dondini goes on tour to Paris, the center of European theatrical life. "Zaire" and "Saul" had been taken of local public restraint. Remain the last card - "Otello."

At the premiere Vantadur hall was full. Attendees celebrities - Skrib, both of Dumas, de Vigny, Gautier, and others. The first stage occurs only acquaintance with the character. But decisive action, actions which he commits to the will of the author, immediately determine the basis of his character. In the audience has already heard whispering: "Excellent!" The play went triumphantly. Even the critics are unanimous in the assessment of the outstanding talent of the artist, the force of its impact, most of his personality.

Troupe Dondini returned home.

Photo - Salvini Tommaso
«Salvini Tommaso»

At the end of May 1859 Clementine gave Salvini son. It was named after the maestro Gustavo Modena. Later in the light of Clementine (1860), Alessandro (1963) and Mario (1864).

Tommaso Salvini continued to successfully tour. They conquered Naples. "Orest", "Zaire", "Hamlet" - a growing success of the play to play. Triumphant season in "Fiorentino" was marked by the creation of one of those roles that were the glory of the artist This was Ingomar, barbarian, in which lived a hero and romantic, from the play "Son of forest Frederick Helm.

In February 1861 Salvini collecting his first company, which included his wife Clementine. This troupe contemporaries proclaimed "election", as it were executing on any line. In September, the company enters into a contract with Salvini Filippo Montefoski, tenant Theater "Score". Among the sixteen new productions were the drama "Civilian death" (Corrado) Giacometti.

The play was a triumph for the actor. Yarro critic wrote: "... Initially, Corrado - Salvini tried to look humble and humble, but when the resentment and anger run high in the soul of his audience tsepeneli, they have the power of horror. The horror, one might say, to fill the whole stage. x3c...x3e What sublime contrasts between the gusts of anger, these explosions of anger, you have it угадывали, rather, that you fear it, and succeed them suddenly with humility meekness, the decline of the spirit. In a constant voltage was a spectator! Most of his voice and appearance, which was not equal to no one, could embody both tenderness and powerful force (enough to remember "the Son of forests), the kindness and cruelty. They raised him in those roles at such a height, which no one else, and dream could not. "

From now on "Civilian death" has become the second Otello: everywhere and waited for her, demanding she admired everywhere, connecting with the name of the artist.

In April 1863 Tommaso and Clementine sign a contract for next season with "Fiorentino". In Naples Salvini puts "King Lear." Five years later he studied Shakespeare′s masterpiece, vzhyvaju in the image, waiting for "inspiration" to convey a dramatic last act. Tommaso has made a big success.

In May 1865 Florence celebrates shestisotletie Dante. 13th is the number of "Francesca da Rimini." In the first and last time on stage playing together three of the most famous Italian artists: Ristori, Salvini, and Rossi. The latter took a seemingly disadvantageous role Lanciotto, to deceive her husband. However, it is Salvini in this memorable evening was awarded the hottest applause.

After the government awarded him the Order, the actors from the theater "Fiorentino" handed him a cross with the inscription "Tommaso Salvini - King of the stage - from the Friends of Art."

The joy of victory was marred by stage lung disease, discovered at Clementines. With a heavy heart takes Salvini for a play Giacometti "Sophocles." It seems that this tragedy, the suffering of a poem sent to him the rock itself. Performance held on 2 April 1866. Salvini covered unusual even for a lift and put in sorrow, and inspiration from the great tragedian entire meal of their own hearts. For the first time an actor, have an excellent owner of one another, cried real tears on stage.

Health Clementines deteriorated with each month, and August 31, 1868 it was not. On the eve fortieth Tommaso has been battling a blow from which it was difficult to recover. But he left three sons and a daughter. For their sake, worth living.

After a successful tour in Spain and Portugal (1869), Salvini acted "Nikkolini" in Florence. The audience enthusiastically greeted the tragedy "Arduino d′Ivrea S. Morelli. As a proud and heroic image of the Marquis d′Ivrea Italians saw the embodiment of "the martyr-king" Charles Albert and Victor Emmanuel II.

In 1871, Salvini crossed the ocean.

Photo - Salvini Tommaso
«Salvini Tommaso»

Tours begin in the best hall of Montevideo, "Solis." The actor won the hearts of residents of the capital of Uruguay, and was awarded the honors, which typically pay only a national hero. Then, just as he triumphantly made in Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro. After returning home, Salvini received attractive offer to make a tour, now in North America.

The first performance at the United States - "Otello" - was held September 16 at Academy of Music. " This tragedy has been well known to Americans. Salvini has attached great importance to greatness of soul, deep "honesty" Moor, while the American actors have played Otello wild, vengeful, fierce warrior. At first the audience perplexed, but then concluded: "No one can match the Italian actors in the transfer of the image of character, he has surpassed, and much more, all the others." The most precious memories of this tour was to Salvini familiarity with the famous American poet Longfello.

After New Orleans it is part of Cuba and then Mexico. Then a new visit to Philadelphia and New York, Rio de Janeiro ... In Brazil, the performances were opened "civil death." Once the presentation ended, as part of the audience, skipped through the orchestra and the ramp, rushed to the scene to verify whether the actor did not die in reality. The last point was the tour of Montevideo.

Salvini was invited to speak at the famous London Theater Druri-Lane "Italian actor included in the repertoire of three plays:" Otello, " Hamlet "and" Gladiator ", the tragedy in the life of ancient Rome Alexander Sume. For the first performance, he chose the "Otello" and not mistaken: play to stay in the bill three months in succession and was the subject of endless discussions, the British critics. All unanimously acknowledged the novelty of the interpretation of the image. Significant evidence of the triumph of Salvini was the request of all the actors in London give them a special matinee.

June 6, Salvini made in the role of Hamlet. Critics said about the play as if for the first time saw the tragedy: the general tone of many articles and even controversial speech (impetuosity execution seemed certain too "southern") has expressed its full recognition.

That London was truly a happy spring for the actor. He met with the 20-year-old Englishwoman Lotto Sharp, girlfriend, daughter of actor Ernesto Rossi. Weddings and Tommaso Lotto held in Florence. In the family, was born the son of Cesare (1876).

Salvini tour begins in Vienna, and then act in Budapest, Prague and finally in Berlin (1877). Old Emperor William I and princes did not miss a single performance.

Salvini back to Paris. Shakespeare - the foundation of its tour repertoire. Critic Vitia so defines the main features of the Italian, "dignity, majesty and depth." But the true triumph of the actor had "Civilian death" Giacometti. Victor Hugo wrote Tommaso: "France wishes to see you, my son - how many would you be enriched by it!"

At the end of 1878 Salvini again in mourning: the birth of daughter Eliza wife died Lotto. He tries to find solace in his work. Salvini many tours: the City of Italy, Trieste, Vienna, Budapest, Odessa, Ukraine, Romania ...

In June 1880 Salvini receives an unexpected proposal: to speak in the United States in conjunction with the American company that will play in the English language. Tommaso skeptical treated experiment. Nevertheless, in early November, arrived in New York. Two productions have been a novelty for the United States: "Macbeth" and "Gladiator."

November 29, in Philadelphia was "Otello." At the end of the play dazed with delight fans rushed backstage. The successful combination of two languages has become a favorite topic of newsmen. From Philadelphia, the troupe traveled to New York, then to other cities of America.

Generally speaking, the decade - from 1880 to 1889 - could be called "American" for Salvini: he crossed the ocean eight times.

In 1882, the actor has shown in New York on his new work - "King Lear." According to Yarro, it was "his greatest creation, but not understand the Italian public." Tour of the fall of 1885 marked the premiere of "Coriolanus" Shakespeare. Alas, "Coriolanus," Salvini stoivshy several years of preparation and work, which he has failed to deliver in Italy because of the difficulty in organizing large-scale scenes, did not justify his hopes. Newspapers praised the singer though, but very moderately.

The last tour of America, he begins in October 1889 and ends in May 1890 on. Can not tell about all the honors rendered to him. Before departing, Salvini wrote: "I always leave this hospitable land, and when the beads are slowly removed from the ship, I should, as a gradually disappearing away colossal statue - the symbol of America, I felt my heart have mercy, and, if not crying eyes, crying My soul! .. "

Not less successful were touring Salvini in Russia, where he visited five times. In 1882, the actor first visited St. Petersburg and Moscow. Salvini admitted that nowhere seen more responsive audience. "I do not know of another audience, which was so indomitable in their applause as the Russian" - wrote the actor.

In St. Petersburg and Moscow Salvini played with Russian actors. Bilingual Experiment in the glory of success. KS Stanislavsky wrote in his book "My Life in Art" on the play "Otello": "... Salvini approached the elevation of the Doges, thought, concentration and, imperceptibly to us, and took into their own hands the whole crowd of the Bolshoi Theater. It seemed that he did that one gesture - handed, not looking, the hand in the audience, all of Zagreb in its palm and holding it, just ants, during the entire performance. Sozhmet cam - death, open, warm dohnet - bliss. We were already in his power, forever, for life. We already knew who the genius of what he is and what it must wait ... "

"This is my last trip," - said Salvini, traveling in Russia in 1900. In St. Petersburg and Moscow, it had expected rapturous reception and celebration.

Now in 1903 - the year of centennial anniversary of Vittorio Alferi. Once again the imperial mantle of Saul Salvini is on the stages of Turin and Asti. This year was the year a final farewell to the stage. Salvini makes farewell tour of four cities: Naples, Milan, Florence and Rome. And as the end - "Civilian death" on stage "Kostantsi. The last time the Italians saw the Corrado.

He lived for many years. In the family Salvini was the patriarch, who loved and who strictly obeyed. He purchased a large farm Devole in the middle of the hills of Chianti. There, and spent most of his summer and autumn, there came his children have with their families.

Salvini died Dec. 31, 1915. He told bury themselves modestly. Municipality of Florence Tommaso bequeathed his entire archive, and received gifts, as well as the marble monument to Vittorio Alferi. Testament ended saying: "I die with faith in Christ, whose precepts have always tried to follow. I ask the Almighty for the prosperity of my homeland, both political and moral, and yes it remain a model of nobility and justice to other nations. "

The great actor was buried at Monte Alla Croce near the family chapel.

 
  1. People and biographies — Actors
  2. Photo: Sofia LorenSophia Loren, Shikolone real name, was born September 20, 1934, in Clinic of Queen Margaret. Mother Sophia — Romilda Wilanow, comes from the fishing village of Pozzuoli, arrived in Rome, where he was to meet with Ricardo Shikolone. When Romilda pregnant,…
  3. Photo: Audrey HepburnAudrey Hepburn, British actress, born in Brussels, where she was born May 4, 1929 in a family of Dutch Baroness Ella van Heemstra and the English banker John Victor Hepburn-Ruston, received the name of Edda Kathleen van Heemstra Hepburn. She had…
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