1. Admirals
  2. Photo: Pattu Kunjali - Marakkar IIINearly five centuries zamoriny - the rulers of Calicut (area in the Indian subcontinent) - ensure the safety of trade in the Arabian and Red Seas, was in constant contact with the ports of the Persian Gulf and Africa. However, the…
  3. Photo: Mikhail Petrovich LAZARA few decades there quietly "Lazarevskaya School seamen, brought up the heroes of Sinop, the first defense of Sevastopol, and the creators of the steam fleet. Thanks to the efforts of MP Lazareva marked fame circumnavigation, discoveries, and fighting, sailing the…
  1. Admirals
  2. Photo: Pattu Kunjali - Marakkar IIINearly five centuries zamoriny - the rulers of Calicut (area in the Indian subcontinent) - ensure the safety of trade in the Arabian and Red Seas, was in constant contact with the ports of the Persian Gulf and Africa. However, the…
  3. Photo: Mikhail Petrovich LAZARA few decades there quietly "Lazarevskaya School seamen, brought up the heroes of Sinop, the first defense of Sevastopol, and the creators of the steam fleet. Thanks to the efforts of MP Lazareva marked fame circumnavigation, discoveries, and fighting, sailing the…
  4. Photo: Andrew CunninghamCommanding the Mediterranean fleet, nearly three years, Cunningham has successfully fought against the Italian fleet, demonstrating the military and diplomatic power.Admiral Cunningham (1883-1963) in 1939, served as Chief of the Mediterranean fleet, which by the beginning of the Second World War…
  5. Photo: DOUGLAS McArthurAmerican military leaders, General of the Army."The American at all one hundred percent of our" American Caesar "- so named Douglas MacArthur, one of his friends. In the United States very often Caesar, kings, rulers called the people who succeed in…
  6. Photo: DAVID BeattyAdmiral D. Beatty named best British leader of the First World War. There was no naval commanders, who would be more famous in the big sea battles. This well-deserved fame sailor walked all my life.David Beatty Born January 17, 1871 in…
  7. Photo: GEORGE MonkMonk was famous as one of the most brilliant military leaders of the UK. But he also was, and naval commanders, and politicians who consider the architect of England after the restoration of republican government.George Monk was born Dec. 6, 1608…
  8. Photo: Francois-Paul Brueys D'AigalliersVice Admiral de Bryues (DBSA) (1753-1798) in Abukirskom battle courage and determination redeemed errors. Only a rearguard inaction led to the defeat, which could easily become a victory.Napoleon had made peace in the Campo-Forma collapse of the first antifrantsuzskoy coalition. Another…
  9. Photo: BERTRAND Home RAMSEYAdmiral Ramsay had to evacuate a British expeditionary corps in 1940, and manage marine Allied landings in Normandy in 1944.Bertrand Home Ramsay was born in the palace of Hampton Court, in Hampton, 20 January 1883. At Navy, he joined cadets in…
  10. Photo: Robert BlakeEnglish Admiral Robert Blake - one of the examples showing that a good horseman, led the fleet might not be the worst naval than many sailors.Robert Blake was born in August 1599 in Bridgewater, Sommerset County, a wealthy merchant family, graduated…
  11. Photo: CHARLES NEPIERAdmiral of Portuguese and English fleets Nepir distinguished in many battles, but in the history of unsuccessful campaign entered the fleet, which he commanded in the Baltic Sea.Nepir Sir Charles was the eldest son of Captain Lord Charles Nepira. He was…
  12. Photo: Michael ADRIANSZON RYUYTERMost marine historians agree that the Dutch admiral Ryuyter was one of the most prominent naval commanders of all times and peoples. Tactics and strategy, which he followed, in most cases led him to victory.Michael Adrianszon Ryuyter born March 24, 1607…
  13. Photo: SANEYYUKI AkiyamaMany described the Tsushima battle. Everyone knows, even the flagship of the commanders participating ships. But hardly a wide range of Russian readers know the name of Akiyama, who developed the plan of battle with the Japanese side. The time -…
  14. Photo: Yang GENDRIK KINSBERGENHe commanded the Dutch fleet, has received many high awards. However, the highest award for himself, Admiral Kinsbergen believed the Order of St. George, received in the battle against the superior opponent in the Black Sea.Jan van Gendrik Kinsbergen was born…
  15. Photo: Samuel HOODAdmiral Hood was involved in the Anglo-American (1775-1782) and the Anglo-French (1792-1797) wars. In 1793 he commanded the squadron, ovladevshey Toulon.Samuel Hood of Whiteley was born on Dec. 12, 1724. He entered the navy in 1741, with 1743 serving under the…
  16. Photo: EDUARD HOUKHouka victory in 1759 destroyed the French plans to invade the land of Great Britain during the Seven Years War.Edward Houk was born Feb. 21, 1710 in London. In February 1720 he joined the Navy, was an active participant in the…
  17. Photo: ALFRED VON TirpiczTirpicz considered the creator of a large fleet, with which Germany entered the First World War. However, gross admiral did not have the possibility to control the fleet, the organization of which he has invested so much power.Alfred Tirpicz born March…
  18. Photo: WILLIAM Frederick HealthAdmiral Health was one of the few naval new era in which the superiority of aircraft over the battleship, it became apparent even before the Second World War.William Frederick was born on December 30, 1882 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. He graduated…
  19. Photo: George Anson, 1st Baron AnsonGeorge Anson, Admiral of the British Navy, has become known for its circumnavigation of navigation, which introduced many reform initiatives in the British fleet.
  20. Photo: Cornelis TrompCornelis Tromp Martenszon son of the famous sailor Martin Tromp, who commanded the fleet was known in France and Sweden in the war against England. And fiery temperament and lack of discipline of the periodic nature, which offset its determination in the fight skilful sailor.

Friedrich Wilhelm KANARIS

Photo - Friedrich Wilhelm Kanaris
«Friedrich Wilhelm Kanaris»

Admiral Kanaris has made a major contribution to the revival of the German Navy after the Versailles peace. But the story he came over as head of German military intelligence - abvera.

Friedrich was born Kanaris 1 Jan., 1887 in the village Aplerbek near Dortmund, in the family of the engineer, who has become director of steel plant. He studied at the gymnasium, and 1 April, 1904 entered the Naval College in Kiel. Kanaris was one of the best cadets. One teacher described it: "It is very gifted in theory assiduousness iron." By the end of study Kanaris well spoken in English, tolerably in French and a little known Russian language. In October 1907, after examination Kanarisa Fenrick - a candidate for a commission identified in the cruiser "Bremen", directed to the shores of Latin America. September 28, 1908 Seaman fired at Lieutenant. He alone has mastered Spanish language and became assistant commander of the cruiser in diplomatic negotiations with Latin American rulers. For his diplomatic successes, he May 13, 1909 received the Order of the President of Venezuela, Bolivar V class. The commander of the cruiser recorded in the certification: "A good military training, the ability to get along with people supplemented with humility, obedience and politeness."

In January 1910 the second lieutenant was transferred to the watch chief destroyer "V-162, but the exercises in the North Sea, it is cold, after six months, dengue fever and treated on shore. After returning Kanaris has once again demonstrated the ability, has been certified as a candidate for the post of commander of destroyers and produced in-chief lieutenants.

In December 1911, Seaman was assigned to the cruiser "Dresden". In 1913 the ship was located in Constantinople, by the end of the year returned to Kiel, and hastily, without completing the repair, was sent to Veracruz, which has replaced the cruiser "Bremen", returning to their homeland. The crew of the cruiser helped Europeans fleeing rebels Mexico. Personally Kanarisu had, using the methods of persuasion, to bring on board the deposed president, General Guerta to remove him from the country. But to return home after successful completion of the job failed: after the First World War cruiser should act on the communication opponent.

In order to have accurate information, Kanaris to liaise with the agency network in Argentina and Brazil, which has created even in 1908, and began to get on the radio about an environment that helped cruiser to move to the mouth of La Plata and sink two ships. When the British ships were near, the commander of the cruiser departed for the Pacific Ocean and joined the squadron of Vice Admiral Shpee. And his Kanaris, through their agents to inform on the movements of the enemy. Using this information, Shpee 1 Nov., 1914 destroyed the English fleet at Coronel. Kanarisa awarded the Iron Cross 2 nd degree. December 8, in the battle of the islands of high-speed Folklendskih "Dresden" was able to escape only through the coming night. The cruiser went to the Pacific, sank another ship, but no coal has been forced to enter the Chilean island and interned. However podoshedshy the island cruiser "Glasgow", despite the neutrality of Chile, has sunk "Dresden." Kanarisu had to negotiate with the British, winning time for the preparation of flood cruiser.

Surviving crew members Chileans evacuated from the island and interned. Kanarisa brood idleness. On the night of August 3, 1915 in consultation with the commander, he escaped and arrived on 4 October in Hamburg. After a short rest the young officer presented a report on the actions of "Dresden", was produced in the lieutenant, and brought to the organization of intelligence in the Mediterranean Sea. By early 1916, he created the intelligence network in the major ports of Spain. Spanish shipyards secretly built vessels to supply the German submarines. However, espionage Kanarisu less liked, and in September 1916, has returned to the fleet. In October, on a submarine sailor, arrived in Katarro and soon introduced the report of the work is highly appreciated in Germany. Kanarisa awarded the Iron Cross 1 st degree and sent for training at the commander of the submarine. Messenger in the Mediterranean Sea, first served as an officer at headquarters.

Photo - Friedrich Wilhelm Kanaris
«Friedrich Wilhelm Kanaris»

January 19, 1918 Kanaris came on the first trip by Commander U-34 and 18 February, returned to base with three victories. Capable officer noticed the Kaiser himself. In May Kanarisa led to Germany to receive a new boat. In late August 1918 of its U-128 was published in Katarro. However, after the collapse of the Austro-Hungary in October, the German base in Katarro and Field were bombed, and submarines on 29 November returned to Germany.

After the November Revolution of 1918, Kanaris was a military aide G. Socks minister, participated in the repression of communist speech in Berlin and the killing of K. R. Luxemburg and Liebknecht, and then led the "investigation" in this case. He liaised between the Government and sailors, creating self-defense units.

Since February 15, 1919 Kanaris also served in the Office of the navy, which soon was called the Admiralty, and then - the main command of the Navy. Kanaris, participating in the creation of the new Navy, became an influential and knowledgeable people. He was assistant to Rear Admiral Adolf von TNT, rising at the head of the Admiralty.

Participant Kappovskogo so-called coup d′Г©tat in March 1920, Kanaris was in jail on suspicion of treason, but was released. July 20, 1920 he was transferred to Kiel senior officer with the Admiralty task to help in the construction of the Baltic Fleet. In 1920-1921 years the fleet received a battleship, battleships and minonostsy permitted by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Kanaris gained their best officers. To train a cadre of a large fleet, a sailor offered to create a pool of human security. Money for training agreed to receive from the sale of weapons caches. Kanaris established contact with the officer′s organization preparing a coup d′Г©tat. However, to participate in the putsch Kanarisu did not have to - it in June 1923, appointed Senior Assistant Commander Training cruiser "Berlin".

"Beer putsch" of Hitler and the statement of the militia officers had failed. Kanarisa January 15, 1924 made the captains in the 3rd rank. He wanted to leave the fleet, but the chief of dissuading him, hinting at the activity. In May 1924, Captain 3rd rank went to Japan. Since 1920, German engineers began to build a submarine cruiser in Osaka for the Japanese fleet. However, there was friction, which Kanarisu successfully eliminated, and the work continued. Success appreciated. Upon his return on Oct. 4 Kanarisa appointed chief of sector-mobilization preparatory works at the main command of the Navy. Starting with a use for the training of old ships, with time to build its steel cruiser and minonostsy. Kanaris selected preparing the document demonstrated the strength and weakness of the mobilization of the fleet. But he does not like paperwork.

Kanaris himself was the search for ways to replenish the funds to rebuild the fleet and made contact with Walter broken, which is intended to neighboring countries to create front companies working in the recovery of military capabilities of Germany. In Spain, Kanaris to liaise with the industrialists and the political community, organized the production of torpedoes and ships, has collaborated with the secret services, met with Colonel French and other prospective participants in the coup d′Г©tat. 1 Oct., 1926 Kanarisa appointed assistant chief of staff at Navy. In 1927 he began to forge ties with the countries of South America.

Jun 22, 1928 Kanaris joined the senior assistant commander of battleship "Shlezien, and a year later it made the captains in the 2-rank. At that time Spain has ordered the submarine to the German project, and Kanarisa sent on a business trip. However, its connection with special services has become known to journalists. In addition, the sailor accused of integrity, and the new commander of the Navy Erich Reder forbade him to give secret or political order.

September 29, 1930 for official zeal Kanarisa appointed Chief of Staff of North Sea bases. Here, it is not Polad with Charles Denitsa, a senior officer of the Admiralty. 1 October, 1931 Seaman made the captains in the 1 st rank.

The investigation on the scene when Kanaris helped run one of the murderers of Liebknecht and Luxemburg, it seemed, put his career on the cross. Spas Kanarisa alliance with the Nazis, who рвались to power.

Photo - Friedrich Wilhelm Kanaris
«Friedrich Wilhelm Kanaris»

Among the supporters of Hitler in the elections of 1932, there were many naval officers who have the desire to impress FГјhrer to create a powerful navy. Kanaris, sponsored by the anti-Soviet policies of Hitler, rose to the position of National Socialism. Soon he was appointed commander of battleship "Shlezien, most of the crew that also did not were for the country. So Hitlerite coup January 30, 1933 aroused enthusiasm on board ship, and began raising Kanaris seamen in the spirit of National Socialism.

Quarreled with its own chief Rear Admiral Bastianom Seaman was transferred to the commandant of the fortress Svinemyunde, but soon it had recommended for the post of Chief of Military Counterintelligence - abvera. 2 Jan, 1935 Kanaris assumed his duties. Chief abvera was energetic and was given to work, forcing screw and subordinates. He considers it necessary to turn abver in critical intelligence service Reich. In order to eliminate disputes between reyhsverom and HS Kanaris has established close relations with Himmler and Heydrich.

Abver almost did not have agency. The first captain of the 1 st rank established intelligence network in Europe (Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France). When German troops entered the Rhine region, agents Kanarisa reported that France is not going to start a war. Abverovtsy establish links with foreign intelligence and used the results of their actions against each other. In this paper, agents are using new technologies: small-sized radio stations, shooting objects in ultraviolet rays, photomicrography. Uspekhi abvera become significant, causing envy Himmler, who became in 1936 the de facto head of the German police. Kanaris, however, ensured that relations departments to settle, and the relations between the FГјhrer and the boss abvera steel trust.

When the summer of 1936, the Spanish Falangist mutinied against the Republic, Kanaris was quite an effort to provide assistance to the French generals and Mola from Germany and Italy. Joint Assistance Franco regime was the basis of the axis of Rome - Berlin, organized by the efforts of Kanarisa. Kanaris established relationship with the agency of Japan, successfully implemented in the USSR. Land of the Rising Sun became the third member of Antikominternovsky pact, signed on November 25, 1936 between Germany, Italy and Japan.

In January 1938, Kanarisa fired in the rear-admirals; 7 Feb, 1938, he took leadership of the Office of the Supreme Chief, maintaining leadership abverom, he should also supervise the divisions of supply and internal affairs. Pravda, June 1, has left his chief of management "of military intelligence and counterintelligence," but in fact led abvera, which organized the overseas department.

At this time Kanaris beginning to understand the brutality of Hitler′s regime. Among its employees were the anti-people orientation. However, the head of abvera, limited conversations with fronderami, at the same time, faith and truth served Hitler. He was a founder of the international military provocations and sabotage in the seizure of Austria (1938), Czechoslovakia (1939), the attack on Poland (1939), has created a widespread espionage and sabotage network worldwide.

Chapter abvera thought as to save the world, it has provided information to Hitler, to bring the aggressiveness of the Fuhrer. Thus, news of the intention Churchill disembark troops in Norway led to Hitler′s April 9, 1940 to invade Denmark and Norway. 1 Apr, 1940 Hitler made Kanarisa of admirals, and then head abvera once again demanded that subordinates the faithful execution of the Fuhrer′s orders. Abverovtsy successfully operated in the invasion of Belgium and Holland and then to France in 1940. However, in these months, the first information about the actions of anti-personnel abvera that Admiral at the time managed to smother.

In 1940, Kanaris agree about the Spaniards at Gibraltar, but the failure of the invasion of Italy to Greece and the landing of British troops there were forced to abandon the French Gibraltar. Kanaris Greece agreed on reconciliation with Italy. However, the American representative of Donovan was able to convince the Greek Government, proposing to help the English. Unable to Kanarisu ahead of Donovan and Yugoslavia, which came to power the anti-labor. But Germany had to fight in 1941 against Greece, saving the Italians, then in Yugoslavia.

Kanaris, who visited Belgrade after air raid, was depressed and saw that there has not been able to help make peace.

After Yugoslavia, Hitler went to war with the USSR. Kanaris, knew of his intention, tried to organize a military intervention against this fatal for the German move, convince the Fuhrer, but without success. At the same time, the chief abvera train future war, in spite of a weak agency in the USSR. He organized the misinformation about the readiness of Germany to attack the British Isles a war in the Mediterranean Sea. Abver to work in the Soviet Union established a connection with the exploration of Romania and Japan, organized the department of "The Valley" near Warsaw. Abverovtsy prepared sabotage in border Soviet republics. That they have begun fighting.

When German troops suffered the first defeat on the fields of Russia and North Africa, Kanaris tried to communicate with the Governments of the Allies to make peace on reasonable terms. He has been particularly active after it became known that in Casablanca Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to demand the unconditional surrender of Germany. In the abvere more were failures. The collapse of the organization, misinformation, corruption and mismanagement of funds have become commonplace. Admiral thoroughly passed and not followed the abuse. In 1943 abver was under attack due to the arrest of the agent, who knew about the negotiations with foreign leaders and that a close member of the admiral, Colonel Oster gave Dutch period the invasion. When searching for abvere were found document is being prepared the anti-coup. Kanaris could hinder the investigation. He waited for his arrest. Fortunately, the Allied invasion of Sicily and Italy called for a revolution in the activities abvera almost dead during the period of investigation, as Himmler did not believe in guilt by Admiral.

The defeat of Germany abver denied the opportunity to work in Spain, where exiled German agents. Only the very Kanarisu managed to persuade the French that he needs to abvere. In Italy, as the Allied Powers, agents did not exist, and Kanaris could not provide information about a country with which Germany is now at war. Hitler is outraged that Kanaris was unaware of the preparations for the Allied landing at Antsio. Explosions ships mine podlozhennymi in Spain, was forced to deny abveru sabotage. However, Kanaris lost communication with the Spanish agency, and following a report to Hitler that the officer does not comply with the order, the Fuhrer February 11, 1944 ordered the dismissal of chief of military intelligence. February 12, all the intelligence service Reich was subject reyhsfyureru SS Himmler.

Kanarisa placed in the castle Lauenshteyn without going beyond its limits and in contact with a third party. Jun 10, 1944 admiral fired in stock, but soon, Hitler appointed him admiral for special assignments. " Since July 1, Kanaris headed a special office in the Commander-in-Chief for the trade and economic war against the Allies. In fact, however, the real action for a small "headquarters" was not.

After the defeat on the Soviet front and boarding the Allies in France, Colonel Shtauffenberg revived the idea of the assassination of Hitler and coup d′Г©tat in Germany. Kanaris refused to participate. And when on 20 July was an attempt on the Fuhrer, he sent a telegram to his faithfulness. However, on 23 July Kanarisa still detained on grounds of one of those arrested. Despite the gravity of the evidence, its September 19, 1944 only dismissed from active military service in the Navy, does not send the case to the People′s Court. After bombing the building RSHA Kanarisa other defendants moved to the camp Flossenbyurg. Admiral hoped to survive before the Allies won. However, in a safe abvera found diaries in which the officer openly described their thoughts and actions. Hitler read the excerpts from the diary and ordered to destroy the conspirators. After the trial, which continued to struggle with the officer investigated, and the death sentence on April 8, Kanarisa hanged. The doctor said: "Admiral is dead quiet."

 
  1. People and biographies — Admirals
  2. Photo: Pattu Kunjali - Marakkar IIINearly five centuries zamoriny - the rulers of Calicut (area in the Indian subcontinent) - ensure the safety of trade in the Arabian and Red Seas, was in constant contact with the ports of the Persian Gulf and Africa. However, the…
  3. Photo: Mikhail Petrovich LAZARA few decades there quietly "Lazarevskaya School seamen, brought up the heroes of Sinop, the first defense of Sevastopol, and the creators of the steam fleet. Thanks to the efforts of MP Lazareva marked fame circumnavigation, discoveries, and fighting, sailing the…
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