1. Architects
  2. Founders, leaders of the main directions of neoclassical architecture in the British were the brothers Adam, sons of well-known architect William Adam. The most talented of these was Robert.Architectural work of Robert Adam has been very broad. Together with brothers James,…
  3. Photo: PETER BehrensIn the works of Behrens, who has been most noticeable phenomenon in the architecture of Germany, beginning 1920′s, it is difficult to interlace progressive and reactionary tendencies of his time. Primness velikoprusskogo chauvinism, combined with the worship of human labor, tap…
  1. Architects
  2. Founders, leaders of the main directions of neoclassical architecture in the British were the brothers Adam, sons of well-known architect William Adam. The most talented of these was Robert.Architectural work of Robert Adam has been very broad. Together with brothers James,…
  3. Photo: PETER BehrensIn the works of Behrens, who has been most noticeable phenomenon in the architecture of Germany, beginning 1920′s, it is difficult to interlace progressive and reactionary tendencies of his time. Primness velikoprusskogo chauvinism, combined with the worship of human labor, tap…
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  12. Photo: Christopher WrenProfound changes in the whole cultural situation and, in particular, their artistic tastes in architecture, have been focused in creativity and the personality of Christopher Wren, who by their importance in the era correctly put on a par with the most…
  13. Photo: Giacomo QuarenghiSeptember 20, 1744 by representatives of two well-known Italian families Giacomo Antonio Quarenghi and Maria Ursula Roth was born the second son, named after his father Giacomo Antonio. It happened in a small picturesque village Kapiatone district Roth d′Imanya entering the…
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Yuri Matveevich FELTEN

Photo - Yuri Matveevich Felten
«Yuri Matveevich Felten»

Activities Felten came in years when the Baroque gave way to classicism, who soon became the main focus of art. Heritage architect focused features architecture transition.

Georg Friedrich Felten, or, as the Russian version, Yuri Matveyevich Felten, born in 1730. His father, Matthias Felten May 12, 1725 he was appointed steward at the newly established St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In 1738, Felten′s daughter Catherine married a professor of physics and mathematics, GV Kraft.

Things were going well until the head of the family was alive, but 18 April 1736 Matthias Felten died. There were widows, children adolescents - a daughter and two sons. Kraft took over the care of a family of close relatives. In 1744, Kraft returned to his native Tubingen called home and left a family in St. Petersburg.

Felten by the time the senior class graduated from high school, opened at the Academy of Sciences. After gymnasium course he was quite prepared to continue studies at Tubingen University, where for several years he studied at Kraft mathematical and physical sciences.

All he had seen in Germany was a good school, has laid a solid foundation in his architectural thinking and certainly influenced all further work of the architect. Germany retained the young Felten long. In autumn 1749 he was again in St. Petersburg. In November of this year Felten filed a petition, as was then laid on the name of the Empress Elizabeth of admission.

In December 1749, Yuri desire fulfilled. His outstanding ability and good previous training quickly pushed it into the classroom at the Academy. In November 1751, having won the necessary course of Science, Felten filed a petition for determination of his service to the academic with a salary. Training its artists have given restrained, but very positive appraisal.

Since March 1752 Felten was enlisted to serve in the architect′s Academy Gezalim with a salary of one hundred and fifty rubles a year. In November 1754 Felten asked permission in the academic office to go "to the chief architect, Mr Count Rastrelli for practical exercises in the architecture, when the Academy will be no work." And in September 1755 Felten began to perform tasks in a meeting at the Office of the buildings team Rastrelli, still not having it in position.

Ober architect of the imperial court soon appreciated the ability of young Gezalim.

Photo - Yuri Matveevich Felten
«Yuri Matveevich Felten»

Rastrelli asked to enroll Felten zaarhitektorom so that he could show, in fact, the natural inclination to architecture Civilis. Decree of the Senate on 20 December 1755 Velten was sworn in and enrolled at the service.

Of course, central to Felten was the work in the studio Rastrelli. When in early August 1764, Rastrelli and his family left St. Petersburg, his closest assistants Felten had begun to terminate his mentor, and soon begin to self-design.

E years 1760-1770 were a period of formation and flowering of the talent of the architect. When you become an architect, he continued to work in the Winter Palace and on court administration. Now, after the departure of Rastrelli, the main architects were Vallin de la Mothe and Felten. In the archival documents of their names constantly occur next. The first carries out projects finishing rooms at half the Empress, and the second prepares the nine rooms for the heir, the future Paul I in the southern part of the palace.

Name Felten is also associated with the creation of remarkable buildings, which became the beginning of the modern State Hermitage Museum.

To post a multiplication of art collections, it was decided to build on the east side of the palace housing the special building, erected on the draft de la Mothe, and partly in accordance with the project itself Felten (1764-1768).

It Felten implement construction. He′s in the years 1763-1766 has developed a constructive basis and the Hanging Gardens built a residential south pavilion (the so-called Little Palace) and, later, in 1769-1775, respectively, as they were built side gallery, intended to house the paintings.

The project Felten in the years 1775-1785 was built "the building in line with the Hermitage" (large, or Old, Hermitage). The plan from the collection of the Office of the State Hermitage picture explains a peculiar name structures occurring in archival documents: the construction of new buildings were used by the former walls of buildings that existed on this site, and erected the facade was as if attached, is stretched along one axis with the north pavilion of the Hermitage. The project Felten was created called the Oval Room, which was adjacent to the pavilion on the east side.

In 1760-1770′s, after the departure of Rastrelli, Felten was the chief architect of the Office of the buildings.

Photo - Yuri Matveevich Felten
«Yuri Matveevich Felten»

Catherine II as the consolidation of her on the throne born grandiose ambitions of the capital renewal and suburban residences, transforming the whole country. She went into all building plans. Executor of its intentions these years was Felten. At the fore the problem of town-planning order. Among the first steps to transform Petersburg was coincided with the end of the construction of the Winter Palace, the replacement of the wooden banks of the Neva stone parapet piers with ladders.

Felten belonged to the determining role in the implementation of this plan, although, of course, the participants were. As a result, the city was enriched by the construction, the natural majestic simplicity of its shapes and skill of processing granite nameless masons.

In June 1770 followed by the disposal of the installation of the lattice near the Summer Garden. The perfection of the lattice of the Summer Garden, a classical simplicity and perfection of its strict graphic designs permanently chained to my attention. She became a kind of standard equipment of this kind. Its composition was varied several times later. Fence of the Summer Garden dedicating poems poets.

In 1772 Felten began his teaching career at the Academy of Arts, takes a long time. Attention required construction in the capital and suburbs. Since then the direct observation of the conduct of work on installing the fence rests on Peter Egorova. In particular, in his remarks adjusted final image gate and end posts in the form of vases and urns, initially not provided. Egorov manage production operations until the end of construction in 1784.

Objective assessment of merit Yegorova in no way contradicts a correct understanding of the role Felten in the construction of the lattice. Since the beginning of construction of the role Felten was not administrative, and defining, shaping the character and appearance of future structures.

In 1773 at the Palace Square Felten rebuilt house, which was called Glazovskij - on behalf of the owner of Captain V. Glazov. Successfully completed the architect led the commission to command the Empress December 20, 1778 to transform the area "against the Imperial Winter Palace, between the eastern corner of the Admiralty and the Million-street. About a month later, on Jan. 26, 1779, the Academy of Fine Arts was a competition for the construction area.

In October, the Academy discussed the results of the competition.

Photo - Yuri Matveevich Felten
«Yuri Matveevich Felten»

Preference was given to the model with portal Doric and Corinthian orders entablement: on the opening note, adduced at the said model, a writer it was the architect Felten.

Р?менно РЅР° эти РіРѕРґС‹ приходится С?РёСЂРѕРєРѕРµ внедрение типового строительства РІ Р РѕСЃСЃРёРё. Accepted as a result of the competition proposal Felten and was such a model project, under which was supposed to take shape area. Works began in the eighties for his project, spread out over many years. Adjacent to Glazovskij were built two houses - for AD Lansky and YA Bruce. Note that the same template intended to modify Diverse facades forties Millionnaya Meadow Street, which constituted the south eastern border area, resulting in all she had to get a uniform appearance in accordance with the draft Felten.

Large range of different kinds of work performed Felten in Peterhof. His talent is fully revealed when creating their new interiors Grand Peterhof Palace. New finish Palace was created at a time when Russia triumphed over the Turks. Chesme battle will determine the content and the unique appearance of several buildings Felten, including ensemble Chesmensky Palace.

Chesmensky palace and the church with him a special place in the work of Felten, since this architectural complex is almost the first, in any case, the most significant, stunt lozhnogoticheskogo style in the vicinity of St. Petersburg.

Palace is in terms of an equilateral triangle, the angles of which resolved in the form of towers, the last completed lanterns with hemispherical domes. Premises located on the perimeter of the building. Formed in the inner circle of a triangle, which corresponds to the second floor of Grand Central Hall. External walls of his, towering over an array of buildings, form a kind of toothed crown. The architecture of the palace is significant and severe. The building is small in size, expressively its compact plan and silhouette, that generally determines the overall monumental structures.

Interior decoration of the palace did not meet its tough appearance and is an example of decoration typical of the early classicism. The vaults and walls of the main room cut through the panels of different shapes, contour which forms drawn profiles of low relief.

Photo - Yuri Matveevich Felten
«Yuri Matveevich Felten»

Wreaths, framing medallions, garlands of flowers - the favorite motifs Felten - make plastic accents on the smooth surface of the wall.

The whole system of building the internal space does not contain the slightest hint of gothic architecture.

Built near the palace temple in the plan represents "quatrefoil": attached to the sides of the square equal semi-circles of walls - the apse. Church on the external features, even more than the palace, gravitates to the medieval monuments. She, in contrast to the massive palace, it seems elegant, festive and elegant toy. And mind, and the size of the building is more like a park pavilion, solutions in the form lozhnogoticheskoy architecture.

The peculiarity of architecture Chesmenskaya church attracted the attention of contemporaries and provoked imitation. Double-famous sights and was repeated in the province.

In 1778, Felten engaged project Orphanage in St. Petersburg. At the same time it was charged with designing and construction of "School of philistine girls. Architect differently solves two facades of the building: from the Neva River and from the city. The main building forms a semicircle, limiting the area from which begins the road to the city. The facade has a three-part division, underlined entrances, central of which is highlighted by pilasters, combine the second and third floors.

In the complexity of the plan of the building, in a restrained use of architectural elements of a warrant under the overall dryness profiling facades are typical features of construction of early classicism. Felten created, of course, very bold composition, freely given for ordering the construction of space. This building is one of the few examples of expressive architecture transition.

But the natural evolution of style has led to increased early architectural form-building warrant. In this regard, the remarkable church buildings Felten, a significant part of which should be classified as monuments to the next phase of early classicism. The architect has created a special type of a small dome of the temple. Each of these buildings for their good, and each - this is quite mature, the perfect type of building. Limit concise plan combined with perfection of form and expressive silhouette, where the warrant is playing an active role.

The first experience in this area architect Felten acquired in 1765 when, in accordance with the decree of 29 September 1764, he participated in the competition for the rehabilitation project by the time three times a burning belfry Peter and Paul Cathedral.

Felten had a chance to build more temples. Four Protestant churches, two of them in St. Petersburg - St. Catherine (1768-1771), St. Anne (1775-1779), two Orthodox - the prophet John the Baptist (1776-1778), Cesme Church, the Armenian Gregorian Church (1771-1780 ).

Among the churches built by Felten can distinguish two rows of buildings. Some of them are made in the typical forms of early classicism, with the columns of the portico at the entrance (Church of St. Catherine and Armenian), open semi-rotunda (Church of St. Anne), others - in lozhnogoticheskom style.

Much time was occupied Felten teaches. By decision of the Council of the Academy May 30, 1775 "for the departure of Mr. de la Mothe adjunct architectural class assigned Herr Professor Felten. On June 1, 1775, he was joined the staff of the Academy with the rank of senior professor with a salary of 600 rubles a year.

Failure to continue the creative work, the difficulty of competition with the new generation of architects forced aging Felten fully focus on the Academy. In July 1785 ": senior professor and member of the Council of State Councilor Mr. Yuri Felten Matveyevich in rewarding excellent talents and received long-term benefits:" was announced and approved by the associate dean.

Came fame and wider still in 1783. Felten was elected a correspondent of the French Royal Academy.

In April 1789, at the suggestion of President II Betsky, the architect was run consistently and trusts him, in a special meeting of the Council instead of the Baron PF Maltitsa director was appointed Felten. Sufficiently vigorous in authority official meticulously carried out orders of his patron Betsky.

The dismissal of the architect of the post in December 1794 was likely due to the fact that he was deprived of support Betsky, formed his presidential duties. Departure from the Academy Felten without fame, without honor. Request to award him was dismissed.

Died architect Yury Velten Matveyevich June 14, 1801.

 
  1. People and biographies — Architects
  2. Founders, leaders of the main directions of neoclassical architecture in the British were the brothers Adam, sons of well-known architect William Adam. The most talented of these was Robert.Architectural work of Robert Adam has been very broad. Together with brothers James,…
  3. Photo: PETER BehrensIn the works of Behrens, who has been most noticeable phenomenon in the architecture of Germany, beginning 1920′s, it is difficult to interlace progressive and reactionary tendencies of his time. Primness velikoprusskogo chauvinism, combined with the worship of human labor, tap…
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