1. Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Paul von HindenburgGermanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914). During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their…
  3. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
  1. Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Paul von HindenburgGermanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914). During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their…
  3. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
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  5. Photo: Zinaida Aleksandrovna VOLKONSKIIThe princess, Russian novelist. For the novel "War and Peace, LN Tolstoy took the prototype of the hero Andrei Bolkonsky several representatives of the princes Volkonskiis. They were the heroes of the Napoleonic wars, and military career has long been a…
  6. Photo: Mikhail Vasilievich Skopin-ShuiskyThe prince, boyar, Russian commander. Princely family Skopin-Shuisky known from the XV century, is not numerous branch of the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod feudal princes Shuiskys, the ancestor of which was Yuri Shuya.He had three sons - Basil, Theodore and Ivan. Skopin-Shuiskys originate…
  7. Photo: Mikhail GOLITSYNPrince, Field Marshal-General. Princely family Golitsyn, its origin from the descendants of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, who are vitally connected with the great princes of Moscow and later to the Romanov dynasty, in the fifth generation of the founder of…
  8. Photo: Arthur Wellesley WELLINGTONEnglish soldier and statesman. Sir Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, belonged to an ancient noble family, also known as Collin, and only to the end of XVIII century, adopted a final name of Wellesley. More correctly the name of Sir Arthur,…
  9. Photo: KIMONO(ca. 510-449 BC BC.)The Athenian general and politician. Cimon came from an aristocratic family through both parents. His father, Miltiades, belonged to the genus Filaidov. After the death of his brother Stesagera Miltiades inherited all his fortune and power in the…

Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukiy-Crimean

Photo - Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukiy-crimean
«Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukiy-crimean»

Prince, Commander in Chief.

Double names in Russia, there were quite a long time, almost simultaneously with the actual names. Some branches of the large noble families began to call themselves by name or nicknamed their ancestor. It is well traced by the example of Prince Obolensky, whose numerous genus, divided into many branches, left his family name - Obolensky - with the addition of an epithet branch of the family. So there Repnin-Obolensky, Strigino-Obolensky, Obolensky-Gorenskie and many others, even triple, surnames, such Telepnev-Obolensky, Sheepskin. Later, a number of lines broke, but kept returning to the original names - Obolensky, or left the names of their branch of the family, which became independent princely names. These include one of the most famous names in Russia - Dolgorukovs.

Dolgorukov numbered its kind 7 boyars, 18 provincial governors, Field-Marshal, 2 Guard lieutenant, 4 Generals, Minister of Justice, 7, after 8, a lieutenant general, 10, Major-General, 5 adjutants general, 10 senators.

It was in Russia and another group of double last names that have emerged as honorary prefix. Gave such names for outstanding service to join the principal name. There were such names during the reign of Catherine II, and one of the first holders of honorary double surnames became Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukov received prefix Krimsky the date of signing a peace treaty with Turkey - July 10, 1775.

In the days and months of brilliant victories of the Danube Rumyantsevsky army distinguished and 2 Army - was taken Perekop and the entire Crimea: the nightmare of Tatar invasions in the south of Russia finally came to an end ...

For 35 years before, namely in 1736, Russian troops have already taken Perekop. It was then sounded for the first time in the history of the name Basil Dolgorukova.

He was the son of Prince Mikhail Vladimirovich Dolgorukova - the governor of Siberia and a member of the Supreme Privy Council. Educated more by Catherine I, the Council began to play a crucial role in the state during the reign of Peter II and immediately after his death. That the Council decided to invite the throne Anna Ioannovna to limit the autocracy. Similar mindsets new empress did not forget. She felt Dolgoruky his personal enemies. The older generation kind with her mostly finishing life on the scaffold, and the younger were given to soldiers without the right of seniority. Opala befell relatives Basil Dolgorukova under Empress Anna Ioanovna, and touched him: the young prince was not allowed in the guards, and he began serving soldier in the army.

Only a coincidence, multiplied by the daring courage enabled him to reach the officer ranks: before the storm Perekopa Field Marshal Munnich promised that the first soldier, who rose to the strengthening of the living, will be promoted to officers. The first was a 14-year-old Vasily Dolgorukov.

He further distinguished himself in the assault Ochakov (1737) and Khotina (1738), in the Russian-Swedish war - in fact when Vilayokah (1740). Accession of Empress Elizabeth and the withdrawal of opals with Dolgoruky contributed military career Vasily Mikhailovich. During the six years he has received 6 ranks, in 1747, he became a colonel and commander of the Tobolsk Infantry Regiment. In this role Dolgorukov stood out from among the remaining commanders and was considered generally recognized as one of the most talented officers. The following year, the troops of General feldtseyhmeystera Repnin he was with the regiment on the Rhine, which contributed to the completion of the War of Austrian Succession. In 1755, Elizabeth made Dolgorukova promoted to major general and was soon appointed him to the army of Marshal Apraksin for action against Prussia in the Seven Years′ War. Participation in almost all the major battles of the Seven Years War brought him the rank of lieutenant-general and the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky ...

Assumed the throne in 1762, Catherine II on the day of his coronation made Basil Dolgorukova in Commander in Chief, and in 1767 awarded the Order of St. Andrew.

In 1768 - the beginning of Russian-Turkish war - The commander in chief Vasily Dolgorukov was entrusted with guarding the borders between Russia and the Crimea, and after his appointment as commander of the 2 nd Army just before it has been tasked to eliminate the Crimean Khanate.

The conquest of the Crimea depended on the lessons of its main points.

Photo - Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukiy-crimean
«Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukiy-crimean»

Russian ought to take Perekop (or GPL) - the fortified line, bar the entrance to the peninsula, and the Kerch Yenikale, items that provide connection to the Black and Azov Seas, Kafa (Feodosia), Arabat and Kozlov (Evpatoria), coastal town-fortress, koi conditioned solid occupation Khanate.

In accordance with the commander divided his 38-strong army into three companies. First, the chief, which was to take Perekop continue Cafu, he took himself. The second detachment of Major-General Prince Shcherbdtov with the Azov Flotilla Vice Admiral Senyavin task was to learn Arabatom, and then go to the Kerch and Yenikale. Order as Major-General Brown had to take Kozlov.

By April 1771 2 nd Army was prepared to march and gathered at the headquarters in Poltava. April 20 Dolgorukov moved to the campaign.

Netoropko walked along the path of creating a shopping and fortified pickets. Therefore, only the June 12 Army stopped three miles from Perekopa. The enemy′s cavalry attempted to conduct reconnaissance, but the Cossacks and light troops, shots were exchanged, soon drove her to the consolidation, where its advocates no longer dared to lean, and only awaited a siege and assault.

Saw the strength of the line, which at its intersection with the road going to the Crimea, had a fortress Perekop, yielding a longitudinal defense of the isthmus, the commander decided to take it by storm the following night - until beleaguered no help arrived.

The main attack was intended to inflict on the part of the line, which is adjacent to the Black Sea. To the rear the same defense Dolgorukov intended to send a portion of the cavalry and infantry, bypassing the enemy′s right flank - to wade through Sivash. At the same time he planned a false attack of the line, also adjacent to the Sivash.

On the night of 13 on June 14 at the gate, the former on the line, came up with the Russian infantry guns, thereby trapping them and depriving the possibility of strikes against the Turks in the flanks and rear of the assault the Russian column.

At thrustline commander moved the 4 infantry regiments, constructing them in 3 square. At the same time by Sivash opened hot fire, showing that the false attacks launched. The enemy, knowing that Sivash weakest area, there began to shift part of their forces. Meanwhile, the infantry square approached undetected to strengthen, which goes into the Black Sea, down the stairs into the ditch and went to the shaft.

Dolgorukov, remembering his early youth, the officers promised a scarf and a sword first, who will climb the shaft. The soldiers rushed forward.

In an instant the whole of the line almost from the sea to the fortress with all the former on her batteries in the hands of the attackers. At the same time the cavalry, Major-General Prince Prozorovskiy, going on Sivash, came to the shallows on the beach - this time in the Crimea - and took up a position opposite the building. The enemy threw against them all his cavalry, hoping to overturn Prozorovskiy in Sivash. But the Russian cavalry, having sustained a massive blow, with the infantry came to the rescue itself is passed into the attack and knocked over the Tartars. Thus - with the exception of the fortress - the whole line into the hands of the attackers.

On the morning of 14 th Dolgorukov translated in the establishment of a night in the shaft of the passage of half his army in the Crimea, and another part left on the opposite side of the aisle. The garrison of the fortress, seeing themselves surrounded on all sides, quickly capitulated, so that already on July 15 Russia′s army entered Perekop ...

50 thousand Tatars and 7 of thousands of Turks have not fulfilled their destined solntselikim Sultan - the key to the Crimea was knocked out of their awkward palms.

The next day, Brown and Shcherbakova columns have appeared in their routes, and the commander was delayed for another day, arranging at the fortress Army store.

Finally, on July 17, the 27 thousandth unit under his command went to the cafe - important and significant in the Crimean city′s defense of the peninsula. There were three columns - each of the division - forced march, hurrying to overcome as soon as possible ashes fierce sun lack of water.

June 29 detachment approached Cafe.

By this time Russian troops have already achieved considerable success: Shcherbakov June 18 took Arabat, 21 th - Kerch and Yenikale, and Brown, July 22 - Kozlov.

Russian Fortresses got these little blood. Another matter Kafa. Head of the Turkish army of Ibrahim Pasha had gathered there not less than 95-thousand army.

Approaching the city, Dolgorukov built in 3 infantry fighting line between the first and second arranged several squadrons of cavalry, and sent the rest of the cavalry on the flanks of the first line, putting in front of more cavalry and field guns.

Attack line Russian went on the offensive. A desperate attack Tatar cavalry was repulsed, and she retreated to the ground retrenchment, located in front of the fortress from the north. This also moved and the Russian commander.

Sent to them ahead artillery opened fire tight. After enduring a few volleys, the enemy hastily retreated to the fortress. Cavalry Dolgorukov occupied trenches and behind them the former camp, and light forces in the same moment rushed to the left flank, along the coast, forward, cutting off the defenders of retrenchment way to much cherished now a fortress.

This maneuver has been done so successfully, that the retreating - and so have already fled not in perfect order - simply vanished and ceased to exist as a military unit, becoming the only crowd of frightened people, one by one seeking refuge in nearby mountains. Some of them, and deprived of this opportunity, caught the wrong wave, intending to swim to shore located near the ship. However, Russian, putting on the bank of batteries, do not give them the opportunity and broke part of the Turkish courts. Other ships have preferred to get out into the open sea, leaving swimmers last hope for salvation.

Meanwhile, the main detachment of Russian forces continued to go to the fortress. Have already been exposed to the heights overlooking the city of batteries, when suddenly the enemy, despairing of success, and with it all the courage, threw the white flag ... Among the captives was and Ibrahim Pasha.

By the end of July, the Crimea was completely won over. On the territory of the peninsula remained only a pitiful handful of desperately tossing in hopeless prostration of the enemy.

By taking small numbers of Yalta, Balaklava, Sudak and Bakhchisaray - in the latter city, by the way, to sit Crimean Khan Selim Giray, then fled to Istanbul, Dolgorukov left in the Crimea Shcherbakova calm, and the September 5th was made with the army to the Ukraine for winter quarters.

In one of his biographies said: "Thus he glorified his own name in those places, where for 35 years, began only acquaintance with glory." And they say that you can not double-enter in the same river!

Catherine in rescript Dolgorukov thanked him for the victory and congratulated on the Order of St. George′s 1-st degree. He received the Order of the fourth - after Rumyantsev, Alexei Orlov and Peter Panin.

On the day of the solemn celebration of peace with the Ottoman Empire (July 10, 1775) Dolgorukov got a sword with diamonds, diamonds for the Order of St. Andrew, which he had with the 1767 and the title of the Crimean. Vasily Mikhailovich still remained dissatisfied with the fact that he had received for the conquest of the Crimea the rank of Field Marshal, and soon resigned, citing ill health.

Newly office called him in April 1780 - he was appointed chief in Moscow, that is, in fact the Governor-General′s second capital. In this position, he earned a general love of his kindness, accessibility, generosity, generous hospitality and selflessness. Exercising supreme control in Moscow, VM Dolgorukov-Crimean genuinely cared about the order and justice, not trusting the law, did the court in its reasoning, relying on your own common sense and experience. Even during his illness, bouts of gout, he had no one to deny admission, taking asylum, lying on the couch. Not being literate, general brushed aside the feathers, referring to their poor quality, and dictated his orders verbally.

He stayed in office a short time and died on January 30, 1782. Moscow mourned him for a long time. Stayed in the "ancient capital" of his house, where he subsequently housed Nobility.

On abilities as a general Dolgorukova expressed differing views, not always flattering. But not having a large military talent, he entrusted his business has always acted sensibly, with zeal and success, the reputation of valiant and brave general.

  1. People and biographies — Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Paul von HindenburgGermanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914). During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their…
  3. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
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