1. Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Paul von HindenburgGermanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914). During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their…
  3. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
  1. Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Paul von HindenburgGermanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914). During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their…
  3. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
  4. Photo: Peter Nikolayevich WrangelBaron, Lieutenant-General. Rhode Wrangel, leading his descent from the XIII century, was of Danish origin. Many of its representatives have served under the flags of Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Holland and Spain, as well as Livonia and Estonia finally confirmed for…
  5. Photo: Mikhail Vasilievich Skopin-ShuiskyThe prince, boyar, Russian commander. Princely family Skopin-Shuisky known from the XV century, is not numerous branch of the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod feudal princes Shuiskys, the ancestor of which was Yuri Shuya.He had three sons - Basil, Theodore and Ivan. Skopin-Shuiskys originate…
  6. Photo: Mikhail GOLITSYNPrince, Field Marshal-General. Princely family Golitsyn, its origin from the descendants of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, who are vitally connected with the great princes of Moscow and later to the Romanov dynasty, in the fifth generation of the founder of…
  7. Photo: Arthur Wellesley WELLINGTONEnglish soldier and statesman. Sir Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, belonged to an ancient noble family, also known as Collin, and only to the end of XVIII century, adopted a final name of Wellesley. More correctly the name of Sir Arthur,…
  8. Photo: Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukiy-CrimeanPrince, Commander in Chief. Double names in Russia, there were quite a long time, almost simultaneously with the actual names. Some branches of the large noble families began to call themselves by name or nicknamed their ancestor. It is well traced…
  9. Photo: KIMONO(ca. 510-449 BC BC.)The Athenian general and politician. Cimon came from an aristocratic family through both parents. His father, Miltiades, belonged to the genus Filaidov. After the death of his brother Stesagera Miltiades inherited all his fortune and power in the…

Zinaida Aleksandrovna VOLKONSKII

Photo - Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii
«Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii»

The princess, Russian novelist.

For the novel "War and Peace, LN Tolstoy took the prototype of the hero Andrei Bolkonsky several representatives of the princes Volkonskiis. They were the heroes of the Napoleonic wars, and military career has long been a hallmark of this ancient noble family. Rhode Volkonskiis goes back to times immemorial, from the princes of Chernigov (other sources - Ryazan). Representatives of the genus has always stood for the protection of native land. The memory of many of them preserved in tradition.

Even in the XIII century, three sons, Theodore Yurevich Volkonskogo initiated three major branches of the family, which has rapidly grown. Province became hereditary dukes Volkonskiis affair, but in addition, in XVI-XVII centuries served as a waiter and Volkonskie Okolnichy, many of them for special services received nobility. In the XVIII century the representatives of the genus have held high government positions, and in the XIX century, Prince Peter Volkonsky - representative of the first line of princes - the title of His Serene Highness Prince.

Rhode Volkonskiis famous not only for soldiers. A special place among its members are women, which became a model of loyalty and duty. Maria Volkonskaya, nee Raevskaya, became the wife of Sergei Volkonsky - a professional soldier, a hero of the war with Napoleon. He began serving a lieutenant in the Horse Guards Regiment in 1805. Sergey Dyachenko has participated in 58 battles. During the war of 1812, he was in one of the "flying squad" created for communication, intelligence and guerrilla operations. Then he received the command of the guerrilla unit, which has successfully operated in the rear of the enemy troops. In September 1813 he was promoted to the rank of major general. After the war, Sergei G. became an active member of the Secret Society of the Decembrists, received after the failed uprising 15 years hard labor as a convict "first class". Respect for the Emperor himself to the prince and his illustrious family could commute the sentence, but he chose to respond on an equal basis with other participants in the rebellion.

Photo - Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii
«Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii»

Maria, despite the objections of his relatives, went behind her husband in Siberia. Neither the hard way, or prison, or parting with his minor son could not shake her decision. Maria stayed with her husband the entire period of hard labor and later lived with him in exile. Her dedication has helped not only Sergei G. defer those terrible days, but many other exiles, for whom she was a true friend.

In the history of Moscow first half of XIX century became musical-literary salon of Princess Zinaida Volkonskaya. He was not the only salon in Moscow, which opened at his aristocratic noble families. But Salon Zenaida Volkonskaya left a special mark in the history of Russian culture.

Zinaida Volkonskaia was born December 14, 1792 in Turin. She came from a princely family Beloselskikh-Belozersky. Her father, AM Beloselsky-Belozersky, was a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and Academy of Arts, Russia Academy of Literature, was a member of foreign scientific societies. Under his direct leadership of Princess Zinaida Volkonskaia received home education and training in the best European traditions.

In 1810, Princess Zinaida married Prince NG Volkonskogo, approximate Emperor Alexander I, Jagermeister Court of His Imperial Majesty. She was a true ornament of the imperial court - has played in performances, singing, writing music. She belongs to the song "Dubrava noise" in the words of VA Zhukovsky, songs and cantatas in their own poems. But the high life did not meet the princess, and she increasingly moving away from the court, traveled through Europe.

Family life it does not go well, with her husband they lived "in passing". In 1824 Princess Volkonskaia settled in Moscow on Tverskaya Street, in the house where the current is "Eliseevskiy" grocery store. Once the house went to Prince AM Beloselsky-Belozersky a dowry for his wife after his death in 1809 passed to his daughter. In the house on Tverskaya Princess has transported its rich collection of originals and copies of famous European painters.

The rooms in her house were painted with frescoes in the style of various epochs. Among the other "open" houses salon Zenaida Volkonskaya distinguished by their special flavor. "There were joined by a large light, dignitaries and beauty, youth and mature age, people of intellectual labor, professors, writers, journalists, poets and artists. Everything in this house bore the imprint of serving the art and thought. There were in it singing, concerts, amateur and lover of Italian opera presentation. In the middle of the artists and their head was the hostess herself. Heard it was impossible to forget the impression which it produced its full and sonorous contralto, "- he wrote the prince PA Vyazemsky.

One of the main visitors to the show of Princess Zinaida Volkonskaya were members of the Society of wisdom "- people who have graduated from Moscow University and now serves or in the Archive of Foreign Affairs or teach at the university. In the Circle of Wisdom "included VF Odoevsky, DV Venevitinov, IV Kireyevsky, AI Koshelev, MP Pogodin, SP Shevyrev, AS Khomiakov, VP Titov and others. Despite the link with Pushkin′s circle, this was already another generation of writers. And if the writers Pushkin′s circle were mostly poets, then Wisdom were mostly prose writers.

One of the greatest writers "Wisdom" was Prince VF Odoyevski. The ideas of his works in many ways reflected the philosophy of the circle of philosophical Romantics, who sought to "perfect". In the work of VF Odoevskogo deal with questions of music. He often acted as a music critic, and one of the main heroes of his prose works was a musician.

Special role in the life of the Society of Wisdom "has played creativity DV Venevitinov. He wrote poetry and prose, philosophical essays and literary criticism. Article Venevitinov of "Eugene Onegin" Pushkin praised as a "single article", which he "read with love and attention." "Collected Works" of the young poet friends were collected and published after the death Venevitinov.

Preserved the legend of love to the princess Venevitinov Volkonskaya (recently challenged by some authors), on the seal of Herculaneum, a gift Venevitinov princess.

Photo - Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii
«Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii»

Venevitinov died 22 years of age, and many Russian poets from Pushkin to Koltsov′s poems dedicated to his memory.

Lubomudrov were linked as sister, and ideological ties with some of the Decembrists, and, despite the purely philosophical direction of his circle, they were preparing to take part in the uprising. When news of the uprising that took place on December 14, 1825 in St. Petersburg, they are awaiting arrest archive destroyed their society. Salon Volkonskaya now become a kind of Moscow′s center, where all information about the Decembrists, the cabin did not conceal his opposition views on the policy of Nicholas I.

September 8, 1826 in Moscow was taken Pushkin. After his famous conversation in the Kremlin with Nicholas I, he settled in Moscow, where he spent some time visiting his closest friends. In Moscow, Pushkin became acquainted with a circle of Wisdom and praised the talent of young Venevitinov.

In the salon Princess Zinaida Volkonskaia met his elegy set to music composer Genishtoy:

Extinguished daylight,

At sea blue evening mist fell.

In late December the same year arrived in Moscow Princess Mary Volkonskaya, heading for her husband to Siberia. She stopped at the house of his sister-in Tver. December 26 in the cabin Volkonskaya held a farewell evening with travelers. Among escorting Mary Volkonskaya was and Pushkin.

The arrival of Pushkin in Moscow awakened creativity of many future writers. "In Moscow came the hottest literary time - remember, MP Pogodin. - Every day heard about something new. Languages sent from Dorpat his inspired poems celebrating their love, poetry, youth, the wine, Denis Davydov - from the Caucasus; Baratynskij published his poems, "Woe from Wit" Griboedova just beginning to spread. Pushkin had read "Prophet", which, after "Boris" has made the greatest effect, and introduced us to the following heads of "Onegin", which has so far been published only the first chapter.

Photo - Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii
«Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskii»

Meanwhile, the scene presented vaudeville Pisarev with sharp couplets; Shakhovskoi set his comedy Kokoshkin, Schepkin worked on Moliere and Aksakov, still not old, he translated the "Miserly"; Zagoskin wrote Yuri Miloslavsky; M. Dmitriev made the arena with his translations from Schiller and Goethe. The latter constituted a special on our arrival, which, however, soon joined up with us, or rather, to whom we are joined Shevyrev, because all our comrades, remaining constant, however, relations, went to St. Petersburg. Opposition Field in the "Telegraph", an alliance with his "Northern Bee" BuЕ‚haryn and bile Tricks Kachenovsky, which soon came to the aid Nadoumko (NI Nadezhdin), gave a new food. And there Delvig with Northern Flowers, Zhukovsky new ballads, Krylov fables, which went for another, according to two per year, Gnedich the "Iliad", Rajic, with Tasso, Pavlov lectures on natural philosophy at the university " .

But apart from these writers, directly or indirectly associated with the house on Tverskaya, Volkonskaya visited VA Zhukovskii and NV Gogol. Exile Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz met in the cabin Volkonskaya most cordial reception, and by its walls did not pass either the love of the Polish poet to poet Karolina Pavlova, nor friendship with Pushkin, Mickiewicz.

But the Princess Zinaida Volkonskaia was not alien to the literary aspirations. In 1819 in Moscow, published her book in French "Four novellas, among them the short story" Laura "- about a young woman, who left the high society because of its emptiness and took up literature and art. It is easy to guess that of the heroine princess Volkonskaia tried to make the features of their own lives. Volkonskaia and wrote the libretto for the opera "Joan of Arc" (1821), which was not supplied.

Settling in Moscow, Volkonskaia took up Russian language and literature, began to record folk songs and rituals, and work on his main work "The Tale of Olga, and remains incomplete.

Despite the fact that the press princess Volkonskaia acted very little (a few poems, excerpts and travel essays), her literary talent was appreciated by his contemporaries, and so strict, exacting a critic as Belinsky.

After the Decembrist uprising Salon Volkonskaya came under strict police surveillance, and although the agents reported AH Benckendorff that guests Volkonskaya speak exclusively about literature, it is hard for experienced fell on hard times.

At the same time, many of regular guests of the passenger compartment or died as Venevitinov, or just left Moscow, and even Russia, as Mickiewicz. The princess has experienced both domestic and religious drama, going to Catholicism. In 1829 she went abroad. Most of the remainder of his life she lived in Italy and only occasionally comes over to Russia, but always with warm recollections Moscow.

Zinaida Volkonskaia died in Italy in 1862, where he was buried. Contemporaries forever preserve the memory of this remarkable woman: "Always friendly and smooth with all she charmed her numerous fans for easier handling, a heart open to the grief of others, kind, gentle to people, often attributing their other moral qualities, gave them an undeserved location. Princess Volkonskaia woman was intelligent and educated: its not for nothing called the North Corinne.

 
  1. People and biographies — Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Paul von HindenburgGermanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914). During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their…
  3. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
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