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Emile Durkheim

Photo - Emile Durkheim
«Emile Durkheim»

The son of Alsatian rabbi Emil Durkheim was not only the founder of modern sociology, but also - along with Freud, Marx and Max Weber - one of the most profound thinkers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Trying to initially result in a system of sociology, Durkheim sought to explain how to develop society and how people interact, share their work, understand the values, learn self-restraint, resolve conflicts themselves are changing. His theories have been reflected and developed in the writings of French Jews, a sociologist and philosopher Claude Levi-Strauss.

Durkheim proposed the theory of "collective consciousness" were very influential. He drew attention to the fact that ideas are often created by many and thanks to their overall creativity persuasive and binding.

Many studies Durkheim reflect his passion for morality. Feeling strongly influenced by theories developed by Immanuel Kant′s moral duty (and in response, perhaps, the bitter events of his time), Durkheim tried to understand how society may change in the service of justice. He claimed that the peoples who live among the people, must have a vision and understanding of humanity, not only in relation to themselves but to other companies. Such liberal humanism is in contradiction with the often misunderstood image of Durkheim as an agent of conservatism.

The work of his whole life was focused on how society and the individual control over their actions (or are controlled). In the study of suicide, Australian Aborigines, methods of education, morality, law or religion, Durkheim, in each case searching for reconciliation and synthesis. How can a man be free in the face of power? Prevents a tradition of choice? These were important questions, first raised by Durkheim in a sociological context.

Durkheim believed sociology product of history.

Photo - Emile Durkheim
«Emile Durkheim»

Science provided a rational means of philosophers worldview. The decline of the monarchy and the rise of democratic regimes led to the crisis and radical change in modern society. This change can be studied using scientific analysis. Durkheim studied the causes of the collapse of the old order and a new peak.

His philosophy of social change, some thought problematic. Durkheim′s ideas is not easy to define and difficult to translate. He ignored the writings of Karl Marx, feeling, apparently, the horror of the communist ideas about the fierce class conflict.

The most attractive aspect of his work is the care of the treatment of society. Often resorting to medical symbols, Durkheim sought to understand how society and the individual develop a fair target for a better life.

His research division of labor in primitive and developed societies and the problems of personality development (discussed in his work on suicide) also played a big role and confirmed the care of the healing of modern society. In primitive societies, he assured, there was a kind of "mechanical solidarity", in which the work was nearly split, and one member to help others by participating in the ritual of interdependence. Personal relationships are built strictly to the will of the group. In more developed societies, labor is divided into many specialties and comes into effect "organic" solidarity, adjustable integrated judicial system, it is necessary to resolve conflicts and to impose control. Similarly, Durkheim considered the act of suicide in its relationship with society and therapy. Suicide can be committed in the name of the case (like the altruistic death of a soldier on a dangerous mission), due to the belief that society is completely disintegrated, or justified by the subject, deprived of communication and empathy of other people.

After studying law, philosophy, anthropology and social science, Durkheim made a very successful career in the field of education.

Like many eminent era, he attended the Ecole Normal "(A year later, the great Jewish philosopher Henri Bergson). Having worked from 1882 to 1887 in secondary schools (in France at the time this was the precondition for a place in the higher education institution), Durkheim began teaching the first university course in social science at the University of Bordeaux. In 1896 the University has established for him the first post of professor and university chair for a new subject - sociology. In 1902, Durkheim moved to Paris to teaching at the Sorbonne, where he spent the rest of his life.

France′s defeat in the war with Germany in 1870, the Dreyfus affair and the First World War defined the philosophical views of Durkheim and the direction of his work. The fall of the Second Empire in 1870 and the formation of the Third Republic in France led to significant social change. The Dreyfus case in 1890. French intellectuals has split into two warring camps. Private person and pursuits, Durkheim publicly and strongly supported Dreyfus and paid for it: its lessons are disrupted, his life threatened. Later the division of the world, which he saw in the trenches of World War I, stunned him and brought death.

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