In his philosophical work, Being and Nothingness, Sartre wrote: "A man bears the burden of the world on his shoulders: he is responsible for the world and for himself as a certain way of being ... Therefore, in life there is no chance. No social event, which arose suddenly and flight of me, does not come from outside: if I am called up for war, this is my war, I am guilty of it and I deserve it. I deserve it, primarily because he could avoid it - to become a deserter or suicide. Since I did not do it, so I chose her was her accomplice.
Jean-Paul Charles Aimard Leon Eugene Sartre was born June 21, 1905 in Paris. His father, Jean-Baptiste Sartre, a naval officer, died when the boy was just over a year, and Jean-Paul raised by his mother, cousin of Albert Schweitzer. Mother and son were so attached to each other, even slept in one room, "I confided to her all" - he wrote later Sartre. Grandma thought Jean-Paul′s genius, his mother - the future of a great writer.
After the death of his father′s mother moved in with his parents in Meudon, near Paris. Since 1911, they again lived in Paris, the son of his grandfather, Charles Schweitzer, a famous Philologist, director and founder of the Institute of Contemporary language. My grandfather is so fond of his grandson, that he decided to teach him at home, not waiting until the boy grows up. He invited his teacher, though he Sartre later wrote that the main teacher for him has become a vast library of my grandfather′s house.
In the autobiographical novel "The Word" (1963) he described his childhood: "When I was seven or eight years, I lived with a widowed mother, my grandmother and grandfather. My grandmother was Catholic, and grandfather - a Protestant. At the table, each of them made fun of another religion was all good-naturedly: a family tradition. But the child judges ingenuously: from this I concluded that both religion is worthless. "
In 1917 his mother remarried and they moved to La Rochelle. But three years later, Jean-Paul again returned to Paris and enrolled at the prestigious LycГ©e Henri IV. Already at that time he became literary ability, and he began to write articles and publish them in the metropolitan journals.
For fifteen years, Jean-Paul has firmly learned that relationships between people in one way or another connected with violence. Historical events have only strengthened the teenager in this opinion. In 1959 Sartre recalled: "We knew - we, the people of my age - between childhood and adolescence are two periods of sacred violence.
In 1914 - the war: we were told that it is valid and that God is for us. In 1917 - the Russian Revolution. Over time, we have opened a few eyes, and in 1919 we have given hope for her ... We were imbued with the violence of our fathers ... When I went to normal school, no one would dare to say that we must renounce violence. We were worried, especially as his guide and limit ... This problem is still there for us: we will never go out beyond it.
As from 1924, a student at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Higher Normal School, Jean-Paul read a lot. In 1928, a year before graduation, he met Simone Beauvoir. Later she told me: "He has a pleasant voice and a great repertoire, the annual celebration of school, he serves as a revue, G. Lanzoni, school director and author of a standard textbook on the history of French literature, singing his own party to the tune of" Beautiful Helen "Offenbach , and with great success. American jazz, the Negro "spirituals" - his passion. "
It turned out that they are working toward the same goal: to discredit the bourgeois values and create a new philosophy, which was based on a authenticity. Beauvoir was pedantic philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre and forced to operate with irrefutable arguments. All his life he depended on her editor flair and a sharp mind. They signed a contract, which for many modern couples became a model for imitation: to be together, while remaining free.
After graduating from Normal School, Sartre served in the meteorological department in Tours. After serving in the Army, he taught philosophy at a high school of Le Havre. In 1933 he left for a year in Germany for an internship at the French Institute in Berlin. Here Sartre, with particular insistence he studied the works of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. Since then, Sartre became a devotee of Husserl′s phenomenology, through which he built his philosophical building.
Sartre taught in high schools Lana, Neuilly. Back in 1937 in Paris, he continued his teaching work, but most of the time he is now dedicated literature. His first novel, "Nausea" (1938) Jean-Paul Sartre wrote back in Le Havre, but published it only when moved to Paris. In this work he described the history of Antoine Rokantena, leader of the French culture of XVIII century. Historian Rokantena first sick from work, then - from the things and people. And just before reaching the critical point (when sick of myself), Rokanten achieves complete freedom. He had now to give the meaning of his life his own actions: he was sentenced to freedom.
The novel immediately became popular and was even named the book of the year.
In 1939 he published a collection of short stories "The Wall".
In the last pre-war years also came in light of his philosophical treatises "Imagination" (1936), "Imaginary" (1939), "A sketch of the theory of emotions" (1940).
Since the beginning of World War II, Sartre was released from military service because of poor eyesight, but he still managed to have it drafted. True, he had worked for long. Already in 1940, Sartre was captured and some time was in a POW camp, located at Trier.
After his release on health grounds, he again returned to Paris and began again to teach. Simultaneously Sartre organized underground group under the slogan "Socialism and Liberty. Together with Camus, he worked in the newspaper of the Communist Party "Combi". However, despite such an active social and political activities, mainly for Sartre remained his studies in literature. He wrote a lot, mostly to the dramatic works.
To reflect the events of our time, Sartre turned to the Greek myths. In the play "Flies" he told the famous story of Orestes, Electra and Clytemnestra. Primarily Sartre was interested in not even a Orestes killing Aegisthus - the tyrant, hold at bay Mykonos - and the existential aspect of the tragic situation facing the Orestes. Orestes is forced to leave Mykonos, their behavior is predetermined, it is motivated by a heightened sense of freedom: the man has no right to rely on God, and should by all means to fight against any regime that restricts personal freedom.
Next play - "For the locked door" - a conversation three heroes in the underworld. The play is written in the genre of traditional comedy of the XIX century, based on which, as a rule, a love triangle. Nevertheless, relying on such a lightweight material, Sartre managed to rise to serious philosophical generalizations. Perhaps this is where he is best able to express and illustrate one of the fundamental thesis of existentialism.
When German authorities learned that Sartre′s play contains a passionate call to fight, their production was banned.
In addition to the dramatic works of Sartre also wrote a philosophical prose. That is, during the war, he completed the work of "Being and Nothingness" (1943), which becomes a reference book for young people at that time.
"In order to understand the strength and importance of Sartre, it is necessary to get acquainted with his philosophical work, Being and Nothingness", - considers J.
Cisar. - Jean-Paul Sartre argued that the first man - nothing, and only a relentless samosozidanie could allow him to become someone. Personality "condemned to be free, but in the very freedom lies the possibility of so-called biased behavior, t ie, one that involves active participation in life. It would hardly be an exaggeration to say that the concept of "engagement" - an active social position - is the key to the life and work of Sartre. "
In 1945, Sartre founded the philosophical journal "Modernity" and together with Camus became the head of European existentialism. Especially fruitful was Sartre′s literary activity in the postwar years.
The masterpiece of Jean-Paul Sartre, AndrГ© Gide called his play "The Respectful prostitute" (1946). Conscience does not allow for a prostitute to give false testimony against black - even big money. This piece raised the issue of racism in the United States and had emphasized the political orientation.
"In the drama" Dirty Hands "(1948), which bypassed many theaters of the world, Sartre reiterates its call to politicized story - here with the sharp attacks he attacked the communist regime - writes J. Cisar. - In "Troyankah" powerful sounds of his angry protests against the French colonial war in Algeria. Sartre′s little experimenting with the form of dramatic work, he never set himself a task to change the specificity of the theatrical business, not sought to give his work a special theatrical sophistication, has not put forward new theatrical ideas - on the contrary, he preferred to use traditional and proven staging techniques, not thinking that someone they may seem outdated. And he did it consistently and purposefully, because the main thing for him - the rich content, thought, polished language of the intellectual, philosophical side of his plays. "
Despite the fact that Sartre in the drama "Dirty hands" denounced communism in inhumanity, he nevertheless called himself a Communist, believing that only such an ideology can change the world. After the war he participated in the creation of a political party left orientation, and from 1952 to 1956 became a member of the Communist Party of France, taking an active part in the movement of the Left. The Hungarian events of 1956 forced him to make the article, "The Ghost of Stalin." But it was not only "the ghost of Stalin, but the specter of fascism, returning to France under the slogan" Algeria - French "and with its program of military suppression of the liberation movement of the people.
This is the theme of the most famous, perhaps, his play "Recluse Altona.
The sixties - apogee of popularity of Sartre, and in 1964 the Swedish Academy awarded him the Nobel Prize for Literature "for the rich ideas, infused with the spirit of freedom and the search for truth, creativity that has had a tremendous influence on our time."
Again Sartre astonished audience: he refused to accept this award (the amount was quite large - twenty-six million francs), which aroused the most divergent responses. And he explained simply: not accepted, because this award was a political meaning and well-defined - the inclusion of a bourgeois elite of the man who has always opposed the bourgeoisie: "If we were the Popular Front government, I would have gladly accepted him Award ", and so it meant the return of" prodigal son "in the ranks of the bourgeoisie.
With age, the writer′s position became even more intransigent. In the second half of the sixties, when the war broke out in Vietnam, Sartre became chairman of the "public tribunal Russell, whose purpose was to investigate the facts of genocide in Vietnam.
In 1968, Sartre, welcomed the students demonstrating in Paris. But de Gaulle′s government quickly impose order, and the writer finally gave up on the communists, accusing them that they "are afraid of revolution."
Earlier, he joined the British-based scholar Russell anti-war movement of scientists, subsequently named Pugwash.
In the spring of 1970 Sartre became editor in chief of the Maoist newspaper "The People′s case" in order, as he himself told me in some measure to protect its reputation from the publication of police harassment.
In the last years of his life the writer is almost blind because of glaucoma. When he was unable to write, then began to give numerous interviews. His house has always had many friends, as Sartre liked to talk with them. Books and newspapers he read aloud to his wife Simone.
Sartre died April 15, 1980 and was buried in the Pantheon. In an obituary published on the day of the funeral, said: "He was our Jean-Jacques Rousseau.