1. Nobel laureates
  2. Photo: Jean-Paul SartreIn his philosophical work, Being and Nothingness, Sartre wrote: "A man bears the burden of the world on his shoulders: he is responsible for the world and for himself as a certain way of being ... Therefore, in life there is…
  3. Photo: Irene Joliot-Curie, Frederic Joliot-CurieSpouses Joliot-Curie, deserves much credit for the study of atomic structure, especially the atomic nucleus. They made one of the greatest discoveries of the twentieth century - artificial radioactivity.Irene Curie, daughter of the great scientists Pierre and Marie Curie, born September…
  1. Nobel laureates
  2. Photo: Jean-Paul SartreIn his philosophical work, Being and Nothingness, Sartre wrote: "A man bears the burden of the world on his shoulders: he is responsible for the world and for himself as a certain way of being ... Therefore, in life there is…
  3. Photo: Irene Joliot-Curie, Frederic Joliot-CurieSpouses Joliot-Curie, deserves much credit for the study of atomic structure, especially the atomic nucleus. They made one of the greatest discoveries of the twentieth century - artificial radioactivity.Irene Curie, daughter of the great scientists Pierre and Marie Curie, born September…
  4. Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Senkevich was born May 5, 1846 in his will of Oksheyska in Podlasie, near Lukov. Senkevich family belonged to an ancient but impoverished Lithuanian gentry patriarchal clan related by blood to the Polish magnates. Among the members…
  5. Photo: Emil FischerFamous chemist Richard Fisher Vilshetter considered "do not have equal classicist, master of organic chemistry, both in analysis and in synthesis, and in personal relations are excellent man." In his honor Germanskoe Chemical Society established a medal of Emil Fischer. A…
  6. Photo: Ernest RutherfordWrites VI Grigoriev: "Proceedings of Ernest Rutherford, who is often rightly called one of the giants of physics of our century, the work of several generations of his students have had a tremendous impact not only on science and technology of…
  7. Photo: Anatole FranceJoseph Conrad called France′s "prince of prose." And the soul Brescia, wrote: "Despite all the vagaries of critical fashion, France will always stand next to (J. Bernard) Shaw as a great satirist of our age and with such writers as Rabelais,…
  8. Photo: Mihail GorbachevNI Ryzhkov, chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the end of the eighties, people from the perestroika of Gorbachev′s team, wrote: "Gorbachev - a great personality in our great history. In the history of power in our power.…
  9. Photo: Paul John FloryThe experimental discovery Flory, theoretical generalizations and predictions contained in the well-known monographs "Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules" (1953) and "Principles of Polymer Chemistry" (1963) have made significant contributions in almost every field of polymer science and in many ways defined…
  10. Photo: Rudyard Kipling"Kipling found the romance of heroism and selfless in the midst of modernity - write N. Dyakonov and A. Dolinin. - Proclaimed at the time of the collapse of ideals and distrust of the heroic possibilities of an old man, but…
  11. Photo: Richard Marti WillstatterAcademic Timiryazev wrote that the work Willstatter "will remain for a long time starting point in further study of chlorophyll, and the future historian will mark the two periods in this study - to Willstatter and after him.Richard Martin WillstГ¤tter born…
  12. Photo: Murray Gell-MannMurray Gell-Mann was born September 15, 1929 in New York and was the youngest son of immigrants from Austria, Arthur and Pauline (Rayhshtayn) Gell-Mann. At the age of fifteen years, Murray enrolled at Yale University and graduated with honors in 1948…
  13. Photo: Pavel CherenkovPavel Cherenkov was born July 28, 1904 in the village of New Chigla Voronezh region in a peasant family. After high school Paul entered the Voronezh State University, graduating in 1928. Then Cherenkov went first to the preparatory and then in…
  14. Photo: Joseph John ThomsonJoseph John Thomson discovered the electron physics.
  15. Photo: Aleksandr SolzhenicynAcademician DS Likhachev wrote: "Solzhenitsyn - a real Russian writer, the martyr and hero. It was typical for Russian writers have always - not only for Habakkuk, but also for all subsequent Russian writers in the walk to some degree. His…

Max Born

Photo - Max Born
«Max Born»

Born was one of those who stood at the origins of quantum mechanics. Here are the words of the founder of cybernetics, N. Wiener: "The main role in the establishment and initial development of quantum mechanics in Gottingen have played Max Born and Heisenberg. Max Born was much older than Heisenberg, but, although the basis of the new theory, of course, lay his ideas, the honor of quantum mechanics as an independent branch of science belongs to his younger colleague ... It was the most modest scientist, whom I knew. "

Max Born was born December 11, 1882 in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland). He was the eldest of two children. His father, Gustav Born, a famous embryologist, a chair at Breslavskiy University. Mother, Margaret Kaufman, came from a family of entrepreneurs working in the textile industry. She died when the boy was only four years. Four years later, his father re-married to Bertha Lipshteyn, who bore him a son.

"I was in the normal German school, in which the main subjects were Latin, Greek and mathematics, - recalled Born. - I was not particularly keen on either one of them, but remember, that enjoyed reading Homer, and still remember by heart the first lines of "The Odyssey". Maschke, who taught mathematics in high school, was not only a brilliant teacher, but a thoughtful experimenter and very kind person. He also taught physics and chemistry, and I was infected by his enthusiasm.

Shortly before his death, my father advised me not to hurry with a choice of specialty, and to attend the university lectures on various subjects, and only then, after a year, to decide. So I listened to not only the mathematics and other exact sciences, but also philosophy, art history and other subjects.

At that time, German students roamed the university cities, spending the summer in some small university in order to enjoy nature and sports, and winter - in big cities with their theaters, concerts and meetings. So, I spent one summer in Heidelberg, a beautiful and cheerful town, situated on the river Neckar, and the other - in Zurich, near the Alps. Heidelberg few that gave me a scientific standpoint, but there I met James Franco, who became my closest friend, and in subsequent years - a colleague in the physics department at Göttingen. In Zurich, I first came into contact with a first-class mathematician Hurwitz, whose lectures on elliptic functions revealed to me the spirit of modern analysis.

In 1904, Bourn entered the University of Gottingen, where he studied under the guidance of famous mathematicians - D. Hilbert and F. Klein, and H. Minkowski. Gilbert, assessing intellectual abilities Bourne, made him his assistant in 1905. Max, in addition, he studied in Göttingen astronomy. By the time of receipt of the degree of doctor in 1907 for a thesis on the theory of stability of elastic bodies of his interests shifted to the area of electrodynamics and the theory of relativity.

After graduation, Bourn was drafted a year for military service in a cavalry regiment in Berlin, but soon, after a few months, was discharged because of asthma. This brief experience of military service has strengthened its aversion to war and militarism, which has been preserved in his life.

The next six months, Born worked at Cambridge University: "To further explore the fundamental problems of physics, I went to England, in Cambridge. There I attended as a graduate student pilot classes and lectures in college and Gonvillya Kayusa.

Photo - Max Born
«Max Born»

I found that the Larmor lecture on electromagnetic theory virtually nothing to add to what I learned from Minkowski. But the lecture demonstrations JJ Thomson was superb and impressive. However, the most valuable to me at that time was, of course, communicate with people: kindness and hospitality of British life among students, colleges and splendor of the country. "

Back in Breslau, Born after some time proceeded to the theoretical work on the theory of relativity. By combining the ideas of Einstein with the mathematical approach Minkowski, Born opened a new simplified method for calculating the mass of the electron. Assessing the work, Minkowski, Born, invited back to Göttingen as his assistant. However, Bourne worked with him only a few weeks due to the sudden death of Minkowski, followed in early 1909.

In autumn 1909 a young scientist has the right teaching of theoretical physics. In Göttingen he began to study the properties of crystals, depending on the arrangement of atoms. Together with T. von Karman Bourn has developed a precise theory of the specific heat of crystals depending on temperature - a theory which still underpins the study of crystals. The crystal structure has remained the main area of research Bourne until mid twenties.

Born summer of 1912 visited the United States, where he lectured on the theory of relativity, and also worked in the laboratory Michelson.

Returning to Europe in 1913 Born married Hedwig Erenberg, daughter of Gottingen professor of law. They had a son, who became head of the pharmacological department at Cambridge, and two daughters.

In his autobiography he wrote: "Just for the moment when the war broke out in 1914, I received a professorship in Berlin in order to alleviate the burden Bracket his teaching. We arrived in Berlin in the spring of 1915. I began to lecture, but soon had to stop them, since he was drafted into the army. After a brief service in the air (on radio) I was at the request of our friend Ladenburg, moved to artillery research department. There I was assigned to the department, who was involved in determining the location of tools to measure the moments of recording audio signals in different places of observation.

It was during the war he began his friendship with Einstein. In addition to the physics of these two men united by love of music, and they gladly sang along Sonata - Einstein on the violin and Born on the piano.

After the war, Born continued research on the theory of crystals, working together with F. Haber on establishing links between the physical properties of crystals and the chemical energy of their constituent components. As a result of the efforts of two scientists was set up so-called Born-Haber cycle.

In 1919, Bourne took the place of Professor of Physics University of Frankfurt. Returning after two years in Göttingen, Born became the director of University Physics Institute. Under the direction of Bourne Physics Institute became a leading center of theoretical physics and mathematics.

First Born in Gottingen continued his research on the theory of crystals, but ... "My main interests soon turned to quantum theory - wrote Born. - In the face of his first two assistants - Wolfgang Pauli and Werner Heisenberg - I had the most energetic and highly qualified staff, which you can imagine. We started, of course, with the theory of electron orbits of Bohr, but focused on the weaknesses of this theory, when it was not in agreement with the experimental data.

Photo - Max Born
«Max Born»

So we began to study the new "quantum mechanics". First of all, we tried to replace the differential operation of finite-difference, containing the Planck constant; my student P. Jordan and I got very encouraging results related to the radiation formula and other issues. Then, in 1925 Heisenberg pleased us a new idea: based on the principle that you can not use the unobservable variables (such as the size and frequency of the electron orbits), he introduced a kind of symbolic calculus and received a number of promising results on simple systems (linear and nonlinear oscillators). Following the presentation of his work to the press, I thought about the Heisenberg formalism, and found that it is identical to matrix calculus, a well-known mathematicians. In collaboration with P. Yordan we had established the simplest properties of "matrix mechanics", then the three of us are systematically developed this theory. Its results were so satisfactory that no doubt as to its correctness. "

In winter 1925/26, the Bourn was invited as a lecturer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1926, Schrodinger developed the wave mechanics, containing the wording alternative quantum mechanics, which, in turn, as he showed was equivalent formulation of matrix mechanics.

"It should find a way for the unification of particles and waves. I saw a link in the idea of probability "- wrote a scientist.

Applying the principles of wave mechanics and matrix mechanics in the theory of atomic scattering, Born concluded that the square of the wave function, evaluated at some point in space, is the probability that the corresponding particle is exactly at this point. For this reason, he argued, quantum mechanics gives only a probabilistic description of the particle. Born description of the scattering particles, which became known as the Born approximation, it was extremely important for calculations in high energy physics. Shortly after the publication of the Born approximation, Heisenberg published his famous uncertainty principle, which asserts that it is impossible simultaneously to determine the exact position and momentum of the particle. Again, this can only statistical prediction.

The statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics was developed further by Born, Heisenberg and Bohr, and later became known as the Copenhagen interpretation.

In 1928, together with a large group of European scientists Born visited the Soviet Union. By that time became prohibitive impact load scientist. He was forced to spend a year in a sanatorium. Bourne said that since he has never been able to fully restore its former ability to work. But, nevertheless, at the same time, he wrote an excellent tutorial on optics.

In 1932, Born became dean of the Faculty of Science at Gottingen. However, in May 1933, after Hitler came to power, the scientist dismissed from work. After leaving Germany, he accepted an invitation to come to Cambridge as a lecturer Stokes Fund. There Borne received his "Master of Arts" and the right to teach in colleges Kayusa and St. John. At Cambridge, he worked (with L. Infeld) nonlinear electrodynamics - a modification of Maxwell′s electromagnetic theory, setting himself the task to delete the difficulties associated with infinite self-energy electron.

After spending three years in Cambridge, Bourn then within six months he worked in the Indian Physics Institute in Bangalore.

As a scientist says: "After our return to Cambridge, I received a letter from Kapitsa proposed a good place in Moscow, a proposal we are seriously discussed.

But a little later, a friend of mine - Charles Galton Darwin, Professor of Natural Philosophy in Edinburgh (in Scotland this term corresponds to physics), wrote me that he is leaving Yale to lead the college in Cambridge, and sent me an offer from the university to become his successor.

We went to Scotland and lived there for 17 years - even longer than in Gottingen. We loved the wonderful old city, country, the Scots themselves, and there were happy. "

The University Borne taught and conducted research. He made many trips to various conferences and at universities in Britain and abroad - Events in Paris, Bordeaux, the Soviet Union. One semester, he taught in Egypt.

In Bourne had many disciples. Suffice it to list the names of Heisenberg, Dirac, Pauli, Fermi, Blackett, Wiener, Geytlera, Weisskopf, Oppenheimer, Teller. In Bourne worked major Soviet scientists Fok, Frenkel, Boguslavsky and Rumer.

In 1953, Bourn has resigned, becoming an honorary professor emeritus at Edinburgh. "At the end of 1953 I reached the age limit, we decided to return home. We chose the small spa town of Bad Pyrmont in the charming countryside near Göttingen, but still far enough from him to be away from the crowds.

Here Bourne continued his scientific work, preparing new editions of its publications, wrote and lectured extensively on the social responsibility of scientists, especially in connection with the use of nuclear weapons.

While some students and colleagues Bourne had already awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on quantum theory, the contribution of the Born′s been so highly appreciated until 1954, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for fundamental research on quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wave function. He shared the award with Walter Bothe, who was awarded for experimental work on elementary particles.

In his Nobel lecture Bourne described the origins of quantum mechanics and its statistical interpretation, ask: "Can we really something with which you can not associate the usual way the term" position "and" movement "is called object or particle?" And follows concluded: "The answer to this question no longer belongs to physics, and philosophy."

Although Bourne is most remembered for his work in the field of quantum mechanics, his research and writings have played an important role in all those areas to which they relate. "I never liked to be a narrow specialist, - he wrote in his autobiography. - I too would have walked up to the modern way to conduct scientific research in large groups of specialists. The philosophical foundation of science - that′s what always interested me more than the concrete results. "

In 1955, Born became one of the authors of the statement condemning the further development and use of nuclear weapons. Two years later, he became one of the leading physicists of the eighteen of the West, vowing not to participate in the development and manufacture of nuclear weapons.

Born and died in hospital of Göttingen January 5, 1970.

  1. People and biographies — Nobel laureates
  2. Photo: Jean-Paul SartreIn his philosophical work, Being and Nothingness, Sartre wrote: "A man bears the burden of the world on his shoulders: he is responsible for the world and for himself as a certain way of being ... Therefore, in life there is…
  3. Photo: Irene Joliot-Curie, Frederic Joliot-CurieSpouses Joliot-Curie, deserves much credit for the study of atomic structure, especially the atomic nucleus. They made one of the greatest discoveries of the twentieth century - artificial radioactivity.Irene Curie, daughter of the great scientists Pierre and Marie Curie, born September…
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