Makovsky - one of the most popular Russian artists of the genre painters of the second half of XIX century. He is known as the author of numerous paintings, truthfully and versatile life shows various levels of Russian society of his time.
Vladimir Makovsky Ye was born on February 7, 1846 in the family Yegor Ivanovich Makovsky, a well-known amateur artist and collector, one of the founders of the Moscow School of Painting and Sculpture. In their house frequented by famous artists, musicians and writers, including VA Tropinin.
At the age of fifteen, Vladimir has written under the guidance of his father painting "Boy, which sells kvass" (1861), which clearly felt the continuity relationship with a young artist painting Tropinin, his first teacher.
In 1861 Vladimir began teaching at the Moscow School of Painting and Sculpture. His teacher, ES Sorokin, KS Zaryanko, instilled in him strong skills in illustration, the ability to accurately reproduce material objects. In 1866 Makovsky graduated from college and was awarded a large silver medal and the title of class artist for his painting "The literary reading."
Continuing his education at the Academy of Fine Arts, Makovsky in 1869 for his painting "Peasant boys in the night guarding the horses", echoing the plot of a story by Turgenev "Bezhin meadow", won a gold medal and the title of artist of the first degree. A continuation of the topic can be considered as a picture "knuckles" (1870). The artist subtly noticed the characteristic features of its young hero, he certainly succeeded Russian countryside.
The next picture is a young artist - "The office of the doctor" (1870) - attracted the attention of contemporaries, a typical image, the originality of plot, humor. Russian critic V. Stasov wrote: "The present its" Admitting doctor - I hope that everyone will agree with me - one of the most remarkable and typical images of modern Russian school. "
In 1872-1873 years the artist wrote one of his best paintings, "Lovers of nightingales," for which he was awarded 1 st Prize Society for the Encouragement of Arts and was awarded the title of academician. FM Dostoyevsky, who saw the "Lovers of nightingales" at the World Exhibition in Vienna (1873), in his article "Regarding the exhibition, said:" ... if we have something be proud, something to show, then, of course, from our genre. .. in these small pictures, in my opinion, there is even a love for humanity, not only to the Russian in particular, but even at all. "
The same gentle humor, the mood of complacency and contentment, a touching friendship old people are imbued with more recent pictures of Makovsky as "Congratulations on an Angel" (1878), "Cook Jam" (1876), "pals" (1878). On this kind of artist's works very well said the painter, IN Kramskoy: "The Russian artist looks with good-natured irony in young people, puts everything funny, that man is a painter whose works, does its job seriously, and the artist somehow able to order that the audience clearly feels - nothing .
However, humor Makovsky is not always good-natured: sometimes it becomes a means of showing the life of worthlessness, philistinism vegetating in the pictures "in secret from his wife," "Mukholi" (1875), "pals" (1878), "An optimist and a pessimist" (1893) .
In 1872 Makovsky became a member of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions. The artist took an active part in all exhibitions of the Association until the end of his life ardently championed the idea of ??the Wanderers. It seems no accident that in 1874 there is a bright picture of the social orientation - "Visit to the poor." World of poor people mercilessly and without embellishment reveals an artist in this picture.
A year later, Makovsky, wrote the film "Waiting" ("The Fortress").
Kind of response to a loud trial the People and start a new revolutionary upsurge began paintings "Condemned" (1879), "Prisoner" (1882) and thematically closely associated with them, "Party" (1875-1897).
About the movie "Condemned" Much has been written in the newspapers of those years. Stasov, a passionate defender and promoter of democratic art, noted that the artist "dug deep and strong modern life."
Eighties - early nineties - the heyday of the artist, they created the best works. The "bank failure" (1881) V. Makovsky depicted the moment when investors rushed to the bank, hoping to save at least some of the money, not believing in the possibility of such a brazen robbery. Cold dim light fills the close of the noisy crowd the room. The composition of the picture is very true to the general confusion. Every person, pose, gesture unique individual. The artist masterfully conveys a variety of reactions to the same event: despair, grief, anger, show them with extreme psychological depth ...
All the colors are muted, the picture is dominated by dark gray, blue and black colors. Focuses on the psychological expressive faces, poses, gestures. This apparent skill Makovsky, a psychologist, depicting the typical bourgeois society phenomenon.
During these years, creativity Makovsky increasingly penetrated by a genuine drama. Theme of human suffering and misery is embodied in such great works as "A History" (1882), "Rendezvous" (1883), "On the Boulevard" (1886-1887), "Lodging House" (1889).
Shining a female image captures the artist in the film "A History" - wrote SB Petrov. - On the face of a young woman traces of deferred heavy mental strain, undeserved insult. It is not taking off his prison robe, she in the courtroom and fervently clings to his child ... The artist makes no secret of his sympathy for the heroine, has suffered severe mental drama, he entirely on the side of the affected women and loud protests against the injustice was ready to happen. "
Enormous power to influence each has a friend from childhood picture of "Rendezvous."
"Laconic portrays in her Makovsky sad goodbye scene with the peasant mother cast in apprenticeships son. Maternal pity she looks at the barefoot dressed in rags, starving the boy, eagerly rushed to the brought her a roll. In this humble product of Chekhov's easy, informative and laconic disclosed unhappy life poor children, hopelessness of their situation.
Another kind of family drama Makovsky shown in the film "On the Boulevard." Excellent workshop on the transfer of the city (Moscow), landscape with wet roofs of large houses and stunted trees, with long-range plan is covered by moist air of the autumn rainy day, written with the freedom of artistic methods that characterize the work Makovsky 80-90-ies, this picture belongs to one of the best works by the artist.
In the hunched posture of the unhappy thoughts, downtrodden young woman who came with a baby to her husband in the city, impudent, indifferent attitude towards her playing the harmonica tipsy artisan disclosed her tragic fate, her bitter women share. A few strokes - a figure without looking back unconcerned passersby very lonely place and, more importantly, the general atmosphere of bleak urban landscape - showing the cold indifference of the big city to the drama and feelings got in his bosom "little" people "(VA Prytkov).
As noted by T. Gorin: "In 1880, the artist pays great attention to color. In several of his works this time are obvious persistent search for clarity and sonority of color, natural colors of nature, sunlight, air transparency.
Characteristic in this regard, these paintings as "Two pilgrims", "Horse Fair in Ukraine," "Prayer at Easter." In these years the artist has written several rare for his work purely landscape works. Among the best of them is "Kineshma. Embankment. "
Wonderful colorist and subtle psychologist serves V. Makovsky in the picture "explanation." His imagery, light lyrical sense, this picture is similar tales AP Chekhov ... "
Until 1894 Makovsky has lived and worked in Moscow. From 1882 to 1894 he led a full-scale class at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Actively working artist, a man of advanced views, he enjoyed great prestige among the students.
Moscow House of Makovsky, as it was in the days of his father, attracted the best intellectuals - artists, actors, musicians and scientists. Lively, sociable, Mr Ye was also a good amateur musicians, played the guitar, but was particularly fond of the violin. After moving in 1894 in St. Petersburg, he did not leave their music lessons. In the capital from 1894 to 1918 Makovsky led workshop genre painting at the Art Academy. Among the best paintings of the late period should be called "The arrival of the teacher" (1896) and "party", in which the artist gives a vivid picture of the passionate debates that took place among the revolutionary-minded intellectuals in the early to split.
Subtle psychologist, Makovsky a lot of effort and gave the portrait. His most significant work in this genre are the eighties and ninetieth year - are portraits IM Pryanishnikov (1883), IE Tsvetkov (1890 and 1912-1913), ES Sorokin (1891), DA Rovinsky (1894).
One of the best works by the artist - a portrait of another artist-Pryanishnikova. In the guise of the artist transferred the inner focus, charisma, mental softness.
Makovsky was a remarkable draftsman. This is indicated by his "Moscow Types", "Conversation," "Portrait of AK Savrasov," watercolors "lover of antiquity," "Fixing a robe." Makovsky also known as an illustrator of works of Russian classics: Pushkin, Gogol, Turgenev, Tolstoy.
How sincere and serious artist was Makovsky, can be judged by the following facts. In 1896, he was instructed to perform a series of drawings for album of the coronation of Nicholas II. The artist has done several full-scale drawings, but the outbreak of the terrible tragedy at Khodynka, he writes his terrific dramatic canvas "Khodynka.
"I did not really thicken paint. I would not write the picture if it had not had direct observations ... I would not consider himself an artist, if not embodied in the images are deeply struck me the impression," - said Makovsky. For censorship reasons, now for many years was not allowed to display at exhibitions.
The growth of the revolutionary-democratic movement in the early twentieth century paintings of Makovsky responds: "Hodynka" (1901), "The Interrogation of a revolutionary" (1904), "January 9, 1905. Vasilevsky Island" (1905), the latter is especially valuable because Makovsky, being a direct witness of the tragic event - the shooting of a peaceful demonstration on Jan. 9, 1905 - created a work of extraordinarily impressive force. In Russian art is one of the best books on this subject.
In later works Makovsky writes frequently for minor topics while behaves excellent storyteller and connoisseur of human psychology: "school mates" (1909), "The last stage (1911)," hanger "(1912)," Waiting for an audience "( 1904), "The Sun" (1885-1914).
October Revolution of 1917 Makovsky met already in his declining years. In 1918, receiving a pension, he left the Academy of Fine Arts. February 21, 1920 Makovsky died.