1. Special operations
  2. Photo: COLD WAR. Exposing Adolf TolkachevaIn June 1985, the Soviet press under the heading "In the USSR State Security Committee," it was reported that the 13 June 1985 in Moscow, spied for the shares with the goods detained by the Second Secretary, Embassy of United States…
  3. Photo: "Removing" TrotskyTrotsky and Stalin were personal enemies of a life and death. Both hated each other, and reconciliation between them could not be. However, after 1929, when Trotsky was expelled from the Soviet Union and lived in Turkey, then Norway, then in…
  1. Special operations
  2. Photo: COLD WAR. Exposing Adolf TolkachevaIn June 1985, the Soviet press under the heading "In the USSR State Security Committee," it was reported that the 13 June 1985 in Moscow, spied for the shares with the goods detained by the Second Secretary, Embassy of United States…
  3. Photo: "Removing" TrotskyTrotsky and Stalin were personal enemies of a life and death. Both hated each other, and reconciliation between them could not be. However, after 1929, when Trotsky was expelled from the Soviet Union and lived in Turkey, then Norway, then in…

COLD WAR. BERLIN TUNNEL

Photo - Cold War. Berlin Tunnel
«Cold War. Berlin Tunnel»

The history of the Berlin tunnel, which received the Anglo-American names Operation Stopwatch, " Gold "(" Gold ") became one of the most notorious intelligence operations of the cold war. By 1997, there were already 18 documented studies, the novel and film on the tunnel. Nevertheless, controversial history and the inconclusive results of the operation continue to agitate the minds.

In the late 1940′s Soviet service in Austria and Germany have shifted to the use of radio for two types of cable connection. One of them - on the air on the cable lines of telegraph poles, the other - through the underground cable, laid almost at the same place where the cables were pre-war Austria and Germany.

In 1952, British intelligence, carried out in Austria, the "Silver" (Silver), managed to intercept telephone conversations on underground cables, and thus provide valuable information about Soviet forces and special services. So, thinking a similar operation in Berlin, the Americans decided to hold it together with the British.

We started with the acquisition of agents in vostochnoberlinskom Post Office, through which the received information about a system of cables and their use of the Russians. Among the refugees from East Berlin identified and questioned people who had related to the long-distance telephone lines. Agents were purchased on switches in Erfurt, Dresden and Magdeburg. Agency of the Ministry of Posts and Communications of the GDR was able to get a map showing the exact location of Soviet cable networks. By the spring of 1953, U.S. intelligence was able to eavesdrop on conversations in the Soviet telephone lines from 23.00 to 2.00 am, when the agent was able to connect it to the West network. But that was not enough. Required to obtain a permanent and reliable source of information.

In August 1953, CIA Director Allen Dulles was the reported plan of the construction of underground tunnels about 600 meters. Half of the tunnel to be paved under the Soviet territory and in the end, there where the Soviet cable, install eavesdropping equipment.

Photo - Cold War. Berlin Tunnel
«Cold War. Berlin Tunnel»

The operation was conceived and carried out with a truly American scale. Success guaranteed absolute privacy, a lot of money invested in the construction, and the latest technology provided by the British.

January 20, 1954 Dulles approved project tunnel. A few weeks later, began preparatory work, including construction of warehouses, obscuring the entrance to the tunnel. And when he was ready, on 8 September that year, the engineering part of the U.S. Army began to construct the mine. The tunnel dug at a depth of 16.5 feet (about 5.5 meters). There have been unprecedented security measures. Secret of the observation set in the warehouse, from which constantly monitored the area in the direction of passage of the tunnel. Travel to the area of construction of the tunnel people, not part of the permanent units occurred in covered trucks and placed hidden microphones to prevent invasion of the exclusion area, and possibly capture conversations East German police.

At the beginning of the tunnel have been installed steel doors. At the bottom of the Soviet zone of the tunnel ended the room from which the connection was made. Room connected to the tunnel vertical trunk. More room was where the amplifiers were placed. A heavy heat-resistant steel door separated the barrel from the tunnel. It had inscriptions in Russian and German languages, calling to stay away. In the room where the connection is a sensitive microphone, capture all traffic. On both sides of the tunnel lay sandbags to reinforce isolation. In general, every precaution was taken to preserve privacy and ensure the successful and safe operation of all facilities and its staff.

Similar measures for the full secrecy and was taken in determining the number of persons participating in the discussion of issues relating to the tunnel. He was extremely limited: even senior officials of the American and British intelligence, had no direct relation to it, have not been made aware.

But take a look at the list of British representatives on the joint Anglo-American meetings on the tunnel, which took place on 15, 17 and 18 Dec., 1953 in London.

Photo - Cold War. Berlin Tunnel
«Cold War. Berlin Tunnel»

Here it is: m-p McKenzie, m-r Yang, M Milne-p, p-by Gimson, m-p Blake to Mr. Montalon, p-to Balmeyn, m-p Taylor, m-p Urvik. We notice that the fifth name in the list - Mr. Blake. Yes, the most famous Soviet agent George Blake! He not only attended the meetings, which discussed the construction of the tunnel, but later was informed of its work and produced with the help of information until the departure from London in 1955. In this way, and the Soviet foreign intelligence service has received all the necessary data concerning the construction and operation of the tunnel.

Can I have been from the beginning to disrupt the Anglo-American plan and a scandal to expose the owners of the tunnel, which was ready in late February, and is fully connected to the Soviet cables in the period between May and August 1955? Of course, from a technical point of view it was not difficult.

However, in order to guide the KGB has become a priority issue of the safety Blake. The incoming information from him is so important that the risk of his safety could not be identified. Of course, in the event of failure could be to arrange for the flight (as was the case with Filbi, McLean, Burgess). But weighing all the pros and cons, and the heads of the KGB - and that their position is, of course, was aligned with the direction of the country - have decided that from Blake, information was more important than the ooze through the Berlin tunnel. Therefore, information about a tunnel guarded by the Soviet secret services as well as their Anglo-American counterparts. None of the people employed in Germany, including the chief of the Soviet occupying forces, Marshal Grechko, the Chief of Staff KGB in Berlin, General Pitovranov (until mid-1955), the GRU and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Head of Border Troops in Germany, were not aware of the tunnel.

In the meantime, the information extracted by operators tunnel was quite extensive. Wiretapped three cables, 273 pairs of the metal constituting the communication channel 1200, and about 500 of them were active at any time.

Photo - Cold War. Berlin Tunnel
«Cold War. Berlin Tunnel»

" Usually continuously recorded 28 telephone lines and 121 phone recording was made on hundreds of tape-recording devices. There were recorded 443 thousand talks, of which 386 thousand and 75 thousand Soviet East. They form the basis of 1750 intelligence reports.

According to U.S. sources, were obtained valuable data on the Soviet political actions and intentions in Berlin on the structure, deployment, upgrading of Soviet troops in Germany on the Baltic Fleet and its bases and personnel. The main contribution of the tunnel in the scientific and technical information were details about the people associated with the Soviet nuclear program, the location of the enterprises in the USSR and the activities of "Bismuth - Soviet factory in Germany for the production of uranium ore. Information was also received on the Soviet military intelligence and counter, on the eastern parts of the security services. It was established more than 350 officers and RB reactor (Intelligence Agency group of Soviet troops in Germany), their operations and activities of departments, including those far outside Berlin, for example, in Tbilisi and the border with Iran and Turkey. Was also received information concerning the Office of the military counterintelligence in Germany, led by General George Tsinevym.

The only institution that remains largely outside the reach of the tunnel, was the unit PGU KGB in Karlshorste who used the line of government communications.

Whether passed by cable disinformation, intended for the ears enemy? In very small quantities, as well as its training required to attract large numbers of people, and besides, she could be involuntarily denied genuine negotiations on the same cable. On the one hand, amusing, and on the other - a tragedy that all true information confirming the peaceful aspirations of the Soviet Union was perceived Anglo-American special as the misinformation and not even reported in the higher echelons of power. Zakompleksovannye the Soviet threat, scouts have informed superiors only that he might like, and consistent with their way of thinking.

In spring 1956, the leadership of the KGB, it became clear that the continued existence of the tunnel may pose a threat to the security interests of the USSR.

Photo - Cold War. Berlin Tunnel
«Cold War. Berlin Tunnel»

It was decided to eliminate the tunnel. It so happened that it coincided with the time of Khrushchev′s planned official visit to England. Therefore, Khrushchev gave orders to find the tunnel so as not to jeopardize George Blake, and to maximize the publicity, stressing the role of Americans and does not mention the British.

In the twentieth April 1956 have been unusually heavy spring rains, which caused a short circuit in the telecommunications cables. Anyway, it was officially announced. On the night of 21 to 22 April, a special team start to dig the earth in search of places of short circuits. "

In 2 hours and 50 minutes of the working group found the cables coming from a connection to the hatch in the floor connecting the camera.

About what happened next, there are several versions. According to one of their (Soviet), a group searching later in the tunnel at 6 o′clock in the morning and saw the operators working in the headphones, included recording equipment and a few people bite of coffee. Noticing strange operators dropped the headphones and ran through the tunnel toward the American zone. It is difficult for the Soviet intelligence agents rushed over and stopped just before the barricades of sandbags, where jagged letters was the inscription: "You go into the American sector." Seeing this, the Soviet working group turned back to the checkpoint, inspected the facilities available there and disable it from the Soviet cables.

According to another version, the U.S., continued to listen even when the working group was on the checkpoint, but still does not come down in the barrel. From 8 to 9 o′clock in the morning was recorded many conversations. Only 12.30 East technology raised two hatches, have done a hole in the wall and entered the room. At 14.20 in the hole entered Soviet communications, made a movie camera. Meanwhile, the Americans had intended to blow up the tunnel, but General Charles L. Dasher, the U.S. commander in Berlin to learn that among the Russians may be the victim, refused to consent.

Then the entrance to the tunnel was placed sandbags and are marked: "You go into the American sector." At 15.00 poslyshalis steps in the corridor, but the American officer, vzvedya slide uncharged machine gun, spugnul unwanted guests. 15.35 In connection to the cables were cut in 15.50 zaglohli microphones.

Another version was published in the London book on Espionage (1978). In the article entitled "Spies on the sale of" states: "But April 22, 1956 Russian suddenly discovered the tunnel in its territory. Function alarm system. Russian did not find the tunnel, but the equipment was in place. The operators have disappeared so quickly that the Russian found boiling coffee pot in the empty space. "

We will not dig to the truth: Does drinking coffee operators, or just Kipelov coffee pot, or no one was there. All this is not so important. The main thing is that the tunnel was discovered and ceased to exist. He lasted 11 months and 11 days.

This was followed by diplomatic notes of protest and the Soviet side. In locating the tunnel was arranged press conference.

However, special attractions, this event is not triggered. Concerned about another world: Khrushchev′s visit to England. On the day of detection of the tunnel, he was on an official reception at Buckingham Palace and did not say any offensive words to the British.

 
  1. Education and Reference — Special operations
  2. Photo: COLD WAR. Exposing Adolf TolkachevaIn June 1985, the Soviet press under the heading "In the USSR State Security Committee," it was reported that the 13 June 1985 in Moscow, spied for the shares with the goods detained by the Second Secretary, Embassy of United States…
  3. Photo: "Removing" TrotskyTrotsky and Stalin were personal enemies of a life and death. Both hated each other, and reconciliation between them could not be. However, after 1929, when Trotsky was expelled from the Soviet Union and lived in Turkey, then Norway, then in…
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