1. Women
  2. Photo: Coco ChanelCoco Chanel - she freed a woman from the XX century corsets and created a new silhouette freeing her body. Fashion designer Coco Chanel revolutionized the shape of a woman, she became an innovator and trendsetter, her ideas contrary to the…
  3. Photo: Astrid LindgrenAstrid Lindgren (1907-2002) swedish writer. Author of novels for children, "Pippi Longstocking - Long Stocking" (1945-1952), "The Kid and Carlson, who lives on the Roof" (1955-1968), "Rasmus-bum" (1956), "The Brothers Lionheart" (1979), "Ronia, the Robber′s Daughter" (1981), etc. Remember how the…
  1. Women
  2. Photo: Coco ChanelCoco Chanel - she freed a woman from the XX century corsets and created a new silhouette freeing her body. Fashion designer Coco Chanel revolutionized the shape of a woman, she became an innovator and trendsetter, her ideas contrary to the…
  3. Photo: Astrid LindgrenAstrid Lindgren (1907-2002) swedish writer. Author of novels for children, "Pippi Longstocking - Long Stocking" (1945-1952), "The Kid and Carlson, who lives on the Roof" (1955-1968), "Rasmus-bum" (1956), "The Brothers Lionheart" (1979), "Ronia, the Robber′s Daughter" (1981), etc. Remember how the…
  4. Photo: Queen VictoriaQueen of Great Britain since 1837, the last of the Hanover dynasty. It is hard to find in the history of the ruler, who would have stayed in power longer than Alexandrina Victoria (her first name was given in honor of…
  5. Photo: Annelies Marie Anne FrankAnne Frank was born on June 12, 1929 to a Jewish family, was known for her diary eyewitness Jewish genocide, who died in the Bergen-Belsen kontratsionnyh one of the death camps of Auschwitz. In 1933, when the German Nazis came to…
  6. Photo: Marilyn Monroe, Norma Jeane Baker MortensenAmerican film actress of the 1950s whose popularity continues to this day. The most famous movies with her participation: "Some Like It Hot", "How to Marry a Millionaire" and "The Misfits", and others. Marilyn's name has long been a household word…
  7. Photo: Simone de BeauvoirSimone de Beauvoir - French writer and philosopher, founder of feminism. Simone de Beauvoir radical Parisian, born January 9, 1908 in the family of George and Francoise de Beauvoir, was the eldest child. Simon grew up in a good family with…
  8. Photo: Camille ClaudelCamille Claudel was born in 1864 in a simple family in a conservative parents: the father of a real estate agent, and his mother a housewife. Комилла was the eldest child in the family, she had a younger brother Paul. Parents…
  9. Photo: Valentina TereshkovaValentina is strong enough guards his personal life and her family, biographers and journalists so difficult to write about it. Given that in recent years, it does not meet with reporters and does not participate in the literary works dedicated to…
  10. Photo: Sarah BernhardtSarah Bernhardt, the famous French actress, who was the founder of the "Theatre Sarah Bernhardt", who was in Paris, and its leader from 1898 to 1922. Repertoire consisted of tragedy and melodrama, in which she played and directed. In the biography…
  11. Photo: Ella FitzgeraldAmerican jazz singer and Songwriter. Newspapers wrote: «She can sing even the phone directory.» Fans wrote: The fire of passion in the blood does not go off Neither day nor night in the darkness ... You, Ella, is more dangerous for…
  12. Photo: Golda MeirGolda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974. Her name is pronounced with great respect by every Jew, when he remembers about Golda Meir, because Jewish women participated in the creation of the Jewish state. Meir fought for restoration…
  13. Photo: Kleopatra1969 BC - 30 BC Last Queen of Egypt from the Ptolemaic dynasty. Intelligent and educated Cleopatra was a mistress of Julius Caesar, after 1941 BC - His wife. After the defeat in the war with Rome and the entry into…
  14. Photo: Winnie Madikizela MandelaWinnie Mandela, the former wife of Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa, which is the leader of the African National Congress. Winnie Mandela, known in the modern political world as an offensive leader with frequent scandals. Journalists write it her as…
  15. Photo: Montserrat CaballeSpanish singer, soprano. Serves in many theaters around the world. Became famous in the part of Norma (Norma Bellini). Master of bel canto. At the end of XX century, it is safe to finally share the laurels of the century, to…

Indira Gandi

Photo - Indira Gandi
«Indira Gandi»

1917-1984

Prime Minister of India in the years 1966-1977 and since 1980, Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1984. Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru. Participant in the national liberation movement. One of the leaders of the Indian National Congress, and after its split in 1978 - the chairman of the party supporters of Gandhi. Killed by terrorists. Pyre, ignited by the ancient Indian custom, burnt out, and the dust of the great Indian women were scattered in the Himalayas - the dead realm of snow. Power in the country have already moved to the third generation of family Nero - the son of Indira - Rajiv Gandhi ... If a politician can be nurtured, preparing for a difficult field of power even from the cradle, the daughter of a famous lawyer in the country, Jawaharlal Nehru, perhaps the most striking example. Young people involved in the struggle for independence against the British in India long before the birth of her daughter, and his whole life and loved ones from this moment yielded to schedule a dangerous politician. His wife, Kamal, as they grow older daughter, became a staunch helpmate in the struggle against the husband and father in law. According to Indian customs woman gives birth to a child in the house of her mother, but came in spite of Nehru family traditions. Girl was born in the "Abode of Joy" - a wealthy house his grandfather built in addition to the sacred place, and was named "Country of the Moon" - Indira - in honor of their homeland.

The beginning of XX century in India, noted the unprecedented rise of consciousness, there are the first national newspaper, is formed Democratic Party of Liberation, dubbed "kongressistskoy.

Photo - Indira Gandi
«Indira Gandi»

The father of Jawaharlal - Motilal was elected president of the new political association, and the "Abode of Joy" for many years to become the headquarters of Indian nationalism. Little Indira spend days lost in the living room, listening to her talk about incomprehensible colonialism, acts of protest about civil disobedience. Already in two years, the girl met the father of the nation, "the unquestioned authority of Mahatma Gandhi, and eight on his advice, organized in his native town of Children's Union to develop domestic weaving. His youngest members in the "Abode of Joy" was woven of coarse yarn handkerchiefs and spurred "swamp" - cap. Eight-year-Indira between work honed oratorical skills, saying a fiery speech to the boys and girls, playing the father and grandfather. " If anyone in those early years has attended the prediction of the future of Indira, then it would suffice to draw attention to one incident of her childhood. One day out of the house his grandfather brought out all the things he had bought some time in Europe - all that belonged to this family in the world hated colonialists. Under the windows built a huge bonfire and burned defiantly foreign luxuries - tuxedos grandfather, bales chiffon and expensive cuts of beautiful Manchester wool. Flew into the fire precious trinkets and patent shoes, hats and finest porcelain. Only beloved London doll girl escaped the common fate. Indira with bated breath till the night followed an extraordinary orgy arranged by relatives. A few months later to visit his father came a rich aunt, not knowing about innovations in the family.

Photo - Indira Gandi
«Indira Gandi»

She brought a gift to the niece of a beautiful dress from Paris. Kamal refused to accept it, explaining that Indira also adheres to the views of parents - only wear Indian clothes. You would not believe the mother's aunt called the girl, and when she confirmed the reluctance to show off in a foreign dress, the woman in the hearts tossed: "So why are you, the holy patriot, not sozhzhesh its overseas doll?" These words struck Indira. The next day, the girl penetrated on the deserted terrace, which has already been prepared firewood for a small fire. She gently placed her precious doll in place of "punishment" with a trembling hand lit the fire and ran away from the terrible place. By the evening at Indira up the heat, she raved, moaned, her eyes were sunken. Throughout his life Gandhi could not stand the sound scratching of matches. But his first act of a true politician - to renounce everything, even the most expensive - it is still committed. Nehru's daughter received an excellent education. The father, despite the employment and permanent arrest, tried to put in Indira and all that he would like to convey to his son, who died barely born. Jawaharlal's daughter wrote from prison, a total of about two hundred letters and what letters! It is this essay, in which the author presents and his philosophical views and political guide to action, and details of biography, and deep spiritual experiences. In 1934, Indira was admitted to the People's University, who created the famous Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore. Education for its program connects European and Indian traditions.

Photo - Indira Gandi
«Indira Gandi»

Students are engaged in many languages, world history and literature, but they feel part of a single group, were obliged to go home Tutor - Rabindranath Tagore, who in a cozy atmosphere led soul-saving conversation.

Soon her mother started a relapse of tuberculosis, Indira was forced, interrupting his studies to accompany Kamal in Switzerland. In Europe, she stayed a long time. After his mother's death in 1936, was unexpectedly found that it is extremely lonely and come back to India, in general, nowhere - "Abode of Joy" has long existed - the father was in prison, and the grandfather and grandmother died. In a difficult situation next to the Indira was a young man. It has long been inconspicuously present in her life. Helped her when her mother died. He had long been friends with Jawaharlal and performed his assignments, he became indispensable in their family. Feroze Gandhi (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi) did not make Indira suffer from bouts of love-sickness, she did not cry at night with jealousy, but apparently it's the suit an ambitious girl. There was another circumstance, which, though created certain difficulties, but a reasonable approach might appeal to the good. Feroz belonged to a religious community of Parsis - Fan the fire, who despises the Indian elite, therefore, Jawaharlal though not made openly anti-choice daughter - progressive beliefs were not allowed - but did not support it. But Kamal, during the life of blessing the young. She was well aware that the bridegroom of equal of a noble family is unlikely to be happy strong aspirations for self-affirmation, Indira, is unlikely to allow it to be fairly loose.

Photo - Indira Gandi
«Indira Gandi»

Felt it and the girl herself, so once again well on reflection, she enrolled at Oxford, where he studied at this time Feroz. World War II began, and returned home young circuitous route across the Atlantic, and South Africa. In Cape Town, where he lived quite a few Indians, the daughter of a popular politician Nehru was met with enthusiasm and hope - the time it was alarming, and people want to hear intelligent, authoritative word. Here on the edge of Africa, Indira acted with his first real political speech.

In India, they were not so welcome. Jawaharlal has become a symbol of the nation, its curator, "Pearl," as he called him Mahatma Gandhi. Especially was unpardonable of his daughter to break centuries-old Indian tradition and marry the wrong person with whom in the olden days and was not supposed to sit down. Every day, Nehru had hundreds of letters and telegrams asking prevent "blasphemy" in some messages contained even a direct threat. In the midst of passion Indira helped a longtime family friend of Mahatma Gandhi. He has publicly defended the unequal marriage, published in many Indian newspapers of his statement. His authority has done its job. Decided to hold a wedding on the most ancient Indian traditions, so as not to offend the religious feelings of the Parsis and Hindus do not tease, that being said, the wolves were fed and the sheep are safe ... Young walked seven times around the holy fire, reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. In 1944, Indira gave birth to her first son, Rajiv, and two years later the second.

While the daughter of Nehru suit his personal fate, there have been major changes.

Photo - Indira Gandi
«Indira Gandi»

15 August 1947 India finally achieved independence. Jawaharlal formed the first national government. It was then and it took the Prime Minister help, because it is one thing to have an external enemy to rally the people to fight, and another thing - be one on one with authority.

The husband tried to oppose the departure of Indira in Delhi, but its time had come, and nobody could stop her career. Indira became the personal secretary to his father, his constant adviser, accompanied by Nehru in all foreign travel, did not leave the head of state in the internal feuds. India received heavy legacy - hundreds of different nationalities, illiterate, wild, hungry, with the opposition of Hindus and Muslims. The first years of independence marred by this religious slaughter. No strike "father people" of Mahatma Gandhi, nor troops, nor the economic sanctions could not do anything to change. In this difficult period for the country Indira talent manifested itself in full. It was opened to people, crashed straight into the thick of the crowd mad, stopped already entered a knife, forced the stopping arm held the gun. On her ability to influence the angry people are legendary. Perhaps she really had hypnotic powers and can force its nature stopped malice. In the fierce political struggle flying years. Time for family were few. Their female destiny Indira felt satisfied after giving birth to two boys and give them a cozy, warm nest. On her husband cared little. In September 1960 she was on a business trip in the southern state. Negotiations have been exceptionally successful, failed to find a compromise between the strikers and the administration.

At the airport Indira's father met with an assistant and announced a massive heart attack Feroz. Throughout the night a woman had her husband's bed, staring into the native features of the dying. Indira suffered severe nervous shock, suddenly losing Feroz, realizing at last the place in her life took this modest, unassuming man. She moved away a few months of political life, preferring solitude. But in early 1961 of its public reputation began to grow. She is a member of the Congress Working Committee, at the same time led several commissions, again left in pockets of ethnic conflicts.

In 1964 her father died - Jawaharlal Nehru. Began a complicated power struggle for power. Many believed that Indira Gandhi would claim to be prime minister, but she was admitted as a wise politician. Realizing that the immediate elevation will make her unpopular name - nepotism is unlikely to be welcomed by the public - she voted for the elderly supporter of Nehru - Shastri. Of course, he was not strong enough personality, but behind his back, Indira could hold his line and strengthen its credibility. Her calculations proved correct. Shastri's death brought the daughter of Nehru's victory. In forty-eight years old, slim, attractive, with a charming smile, Indira Gandhi had achieved the highest office in the state. Often come to power much easier than to keep her fed. The Board of Indira Gandhi was far from serene to the country. India was torn by domestic strife, she was in a difficult economic situation, there were conflicts with disadvantaged neighbor Pakistan.

For 12 years the government of Indira form a powerful opposition that has successfully switched all the people's discontent with the Prime Minister. Regular elections of 1977 brought permanent defeat of Indira Gandhi. But despite his advanced age, fighting spirit has not left the courageous daughter of Nehru. It is surprising just verified his every political move. First of all, Indira Gandhi announced the creation of a new Indian National Congress Party, and secondly, living a private life, she opens her hospitable home for visits to all comers. In a country where so strong collectivist tradition, where there is always respectful of the guru - the teacher, it was a step towards victory. Three years later, Indira Gandhi returns to power, never to leave it on the steering wheel of life. She shot one of the terrorists, fanatics separatist organization Punjab. Usual story - the state is fighting for his integrity, individual nations require self-determination. Perpetual conflict that killed a great woman politician. Well, life politicians too often ends tragically.

 
  1. People and biographies — Women
  2. Photo: Coco ChanelCoco Chanel - she freed a woman from the XX century corsets and created a new silhouette freeing her body. Fashion designer Coco Chanel revolutionized the shape of a woman, she became an innovator and trendsetter, her ideas contrary to the…
  3. Photo: Astrid LindgrenAstrid Lindgren (1907-2002) swedish writer. Author of novels for children, "Pippi Longstocking - Long Stocking" (1945-1952), "The Kid and Carlson, who lives on the Roof" (1955-1968), "Rasmus-bum" (1956), "The Brothers Lionheart" (1979), "Ronia, the Robber′s Daughter" (1981), etc. Remember how the…
  Rating — 9518, Statistics of views today — 5