1. Women
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  1. Women
  2. Photo: Coco ChanelCoco Chanel - she freed a woman from the XX century corsets and created a new silhouette freeing her body. Fashion designer Coco Chanel revolutionized the shape of a woman, she became an innovator and trendsetter, her ideas contrary to the…
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Queen Victoria

Photo - Queen Victoria
«Queen Victoria»

Queen of Great Britain since 1837, the last of the Hanover dynasty.

It is hard to find in the history of the ruler, who would have stayed in power longer than Alexandrina Victoria (her first name was given in honor of the Russian Tsar - Alexander I). As much as 64 years from 82 years of life! And let the XIX century, England was no longer an absolute monarchy, and Victoria did not have the powers of dictator, let the treasury of the State disposed of prime ministers and bankers, the Queen has become a symbol of an era in which, no less, fit almost all of the past century Britain.

Victoria took the throne, covered with clods of dirt that had been "attacked" in the British royal house of her ancestors did not care much about the reputation of the dynasty. They believed that the kings and queens can all, so do not deny themselves in the dubious pleasures. Victoria for many years the Board was able to decolorize many spots, including blood, decorated the British crown, and she completely changed the public opinion about the monarchy. From the cave, which suffered only out of habit, fear of change and respect for the high birth, a British dynasty has become the stronghold of Victoria through nepotism, grandfather of stability and unshakable morals.

Our heroine was able, as they say, time to reorganize and set up a completely new idea of monarchy - the very thing which sits in our minds today. Modern man seems simply blasphemy assertion that the reigning persons carry the genetic fallacy, or bloodlust ancestors. We believe that our bustling world, the only guarantee of peace and justice - not touched by wars, revolutions and "all sorts of avant-garde there" monarchy. But this seems to be a durable myth of humanity owes a lot to "old lady" Victoria, whose reign was included in the British art, became famous in literature and is still remembered with some nostalgia. "Victorian era - the era of Puritanism, nepotism values, eternal, timeless truths.

Our heroine would never ride the British throne, whether the patient numerous offspring of King George III more prolific. Of the six daughters and six sons of a king who was childless, as is anyone who does not agree to be bound by ties of marriage. Trying to fix "death trap" for the British and so hireyuschey dynasty status, the three sons in the last declining years "dare" to marry. In the same in 1818, they quickly got the second half, but were lucky to only one - the Duke of Kent, who was born the same daughter.

Photo - Queen Victoria
«Queen Victoria»

Clearly, it was not up to fat "- not to the son - and the triumphant England enjoined to rejoice over the introduction of the successor of the British Crown. It is true that Victoria herself about the honor did not know until 12 years. When unsuspecting princess told of her brilliant run, it will, as befits a well-bred girl, she exclaimed: "I′ll be good!"

Victorian Childhood "King" can be considered, bearing in mind only the origin, essentially as it was, rather, "the monk". In England, as we know from the literature of the XIX century, children were not particularly spoiled. The situation is the same in the family of Victoria complicated by the fact that, as soon as her daughter was eight months, the aged Duke of Kent, did not differ by about lifestyle and behavior, has died, leaving his wife numerous debts and financial obligations. The future queen was raised in terrible severity, she was forbidden to sleep separately from mothers to talk to strangers, to depart from once and instigated regime, eat illegally sweetness. Governess, Louise Letsen inspired Victoria, that you should not cry in public, and often a girl, barely holding back tears, ran into the room, not to let their teacher. Victoria, despite the harshness and isolation of Louise, devoted to her governess and listen to it all. I must say that the future Queen Louise instilled a lot of practical features, which are then useful both in her intricate palace intrigues. As a companion, a former teacher for a long time retained influence with the throne, while the legal husband of Victoria (as expected) is not removed from the Queen too nimble person.

In short, the future sovereign of Victoria produced responsibly. Someone, available for young pretender, trying to slip the "grain" positions, to seek its support, or to deceive the inexperienced like a princess. On the eve of the coronation of one of the courtiers literally forced the girl handed the pen and paper, requiring its own appointment to the post of Secretary. However, despite the severe disease (fever), Victoria gave a sharp rebuff Nahal. In the day that the throne, she wrote in her diary that inexperience in public affairs did not prevent her to be firm in making decisions. For 64 years she never changed the promise to herself.

Victoria did not differ bright intellect and encyclopedic knowledge, but she possessed an enviable ability to cope with the fact that prevented it to fulfill his destiny - it is not whined, not refleksirovala not tormented with doubts surrounding the superfluous, and pragmatically chosen from the many tips the most useful, and from " ; rubbing next personalities - a truly faithful.

Photo - Queen Victoria
«Queen Victoria»

Victoria belonged to the kingdom, as a large house, which needs prudent and calm the hostess, "stars in the sky are not enough". "I have every day as many papers from the ministers, and from me to them. Very pleased with the lessons.

However, the "iron" education did not kill the queen in a woman. Young Victoria is following with concern for its full-bodied figure, hates getting up early and wearying palace etiquette. The first years of government were held in the balls and entertainments: it is as if making up for time lost to boring sermons Louise Letsen. But what is most striking, contrary to popular opinion, though dynastic marriages of convenience, rarely, there are successful, our heroine was happy in family life and was glad of mutual love.

The first years of his reign, when the feet of the young queen is always "twist" men who want to get to favorites, Victoria adored head of cabinet ministers, Viscount Melbourne. However, more romantic friendship and meaningful views of their relationships are not logged. The Queen was too inexperienced in affairs of the heart, too chaste and Melbourne - too clever to complicate his life, and he was quite enough admiration for a young lady and the influence of the queen, which he enjoyed at every opportunity.

This balance of power seems to be acceptable to all except the Duchess of Kent, which by law the mother wanted to see themselves first sovetchitsey daughter. However, its clumsy plot against the cunning of Melbourne over the scandal. Duchess has accused Home courtly lady, a protege of the viscount, in pregnancy, which was unthinkable for a British court. The examination revealed that the maid of honor - a virgin, but still seriously ill. Soon after she died, that has led the court to arrange a buzz and accuse the royal family in the "heartless". The Duchess of Kent in shame withdrew from the palace.

In 1840 Victoria married the Prince of Saxe-Coburg dynasty - Alberta. The young man had a very attractive appearance, was known as "walking encyclopedia", especially in technical subjects, like music, painting, and differed in tennis XIX century "- fencing, and even with all these advantages he was not" babnikov, motom , lazy and frivolous. Victoria long awaited the prince′s favor, she made him an offer. Perhaps the consent of Alberta was the last choice for a successful career, and only ... However, even envious queen dared to assert that the royal couple′s marriage was unsuccessful.

Photo - Queen Victoria
«Queen Victoria»

The Constitution of England was not and still no formula for determining husband′s regal, but Albert immediately put a table in the "office" of Victoria.

Initially, the Prince of responsibilities were limited: he is called, delved into the affairs of state. "I read and sign the paper, and Albert of getting wet ..." - wrote to the Queen. But gradually the influence of her husband at Victoria became undeniable. Upon learning that the queen, without consulting, let go of the election campaign of one of the parties 15 thousand pounds sterling, Albert instructed his wife - the monarchy should not support any single political party. With his wife, Victoria began to use the railway, thus triggering a technical recovery in the country. In the light hand of the prince in Britain spread rapidly all market relations. "Making money is need of all - no matter what means," - teach the husband of Queen. England from an agricultural country transformed into one of the most industrialized states of Europe.

From the first days of life in the royal palace, Albert has publicly stated that his duty - to load your own "I" in the personality of his wife, the queen. In private relationships, in parenting is not always turned out - first as a daughter′s disease has caused such a panic among parents that their dispute over the methods of treatment over a major quarrel, after which Albert in his office scribbled message from Victoria, warning that the death of the child lie on her conscience. However, safeguards the interests of the State, Prince stood perfectly still, and the Queen fully trust him. Their marriage was not an example of flawed fathers, and very prolific - nine children born Victoria for twenty years together, and all this between the royal affairs.

Successful internal and foreign policy victory in the Crimean War, the prosperity of the economy of Britain formed even in the British cult of the power of the queen.

The trouble occurred in 1861. Albert died suddenly, and comforted the queen was closed for a long time in the four walls, refused to take part in public ceremonies. But who saw the tears of queens? The crowd is merciless to their idols, they have only to stumble or to jump into the abyss of grief. The poor widow has suffered greatly, but the Koreans were buried early in Victoria. Such a strong woman could not break down even irreparable loss. Following the basic policy of the deceased husband, she deftly maneuvered in a difficult situation with Prussia.

Photo - Queen Victoria
«Queen Victoria»

Albert fought for the unification of Germany, but he could not foresee developments in Bismarck, and the Queen, who hated Prussian "leader" in words very cleverly managed to establish good relations with. Only through her personal appeal to Bismarck to Paris in 1871 to escape massive bombardment. In short, Victoria gradually returned to shine in big politics.

This blossoming of her reign came in mid-1870′s, when came to power Conservative leader Benjamin Disraeli. Wise Prime Minister gave the English crown the Suez Canal and India. Grateful Victoria Disraeli persuaded to take the title of Count. During these years the external side of the monarchy, its public representative experienced a rebirth. Queen together with their numerous children and grandchildren happy to appear at the ceremonies to the people and make merry with pleasure. Especially luxurious turned out the celebration of the 50-year anniversary of the reign of Victoria. Held in London, even the imperial conference in honor of Her Majesty with the participation of overseas workers.

In recent years the nature of life in Victoria has been corrupted. Yes of course: it is increasingly close and ministers was seen as a survivor of the mad old woman, grouch and boring. It is believed that others were being unfair to her, that her experience is too early to write off from the "ship of modern times", so Victoria continues to interfere in the affairs of state, wrote angry letters to ministers and taught, and grumbled about the new mores. Normal conflict "between fathers and children" ...

And as always the older generation finds support for grandchildren. Restrained, reluctant to ordinary women′s gossip, Victoria became a confidante granddaughter, Alice, sympathized with her love for the heir to the crown of Russia Nicholas. Victoria remembered how she had been surprised geezer Emperor distant wilderness - also Nicholas, only the First, who in 1844 during a visit to the UK demanded that he make a bed for the night instead of straw quilts from the royal stables. But does anyone, having fallen in love, listening to your grandmother? Victoria, in the end, did everything in its power to favorite granddaughter became Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. She was old and experienced, Queen ... Before the wedding of Alice Victoria prophetically remarked: "State of Russia is so bad, so rotten, that at any moment can happen that something terrible." But even this "wise tortoise" could not imagine what gave the beloved granddaughter of the scaffold into a strange, barbaric country.

The death of Victoria after a short illness sincerely mourned by millions of her subjects.

And no wonder - for many compatriots Victoria seemed "eternal" ruler, others are for long life is not known. Victoria became a symbol of an era, it was when it became Britain Empire, had its ground in India, Africa, Latin America, precisely when Britain suffered its economic and political rise. It is understandable that many in hysterical grief of those days it seemed as if the death of the queen on the turn of the century is crumbling world, coming catastrophe.

There were, of course, other opinions. Suppose there were a minority, but they are worth mentioning. A contemporary wrote: "Regarding the person of Queen shun say what they think. From what I′ve heard about it, it is clear that in the last years of her life she was rather banal venerable old lady, and reminiscent of many of our widows with limited views, without any understanding of art and literature, loved money, had some ability to understand the cases and some political skills, but were easily flattered and loved her ... However, the public has come to see this old lady sort of fetish or idol ... "

But in the end on the properties of identity and character traits can talk endlessly, while keeping a variety of opinions, but about the welfare queen of her country say more most eloquent words. And the children and grandchildren, Victoria, were even more compelling reason to honor the dead for the thrift, enterprise and the wealth that she gave the reigning British home. More than four dozen descendants left Victoria after the death, almost all the dynasties of Europe "infiltrated" her heirs. "Victorianism" is still remembered in England as a paradise, blessed time. And even if everything was not so serene, as it now appears that every state needs "his Victoria, as the myth of the" warmth "," cozy "Vremechko", in which the weather was better and more beautiful women and children are not manhood, and old people are not trying to ...

 
  1. People and biographies — Women
  2. Photo: Coco ChanelCoco Chanel - she freed a woman from the XX century corsets and created a new silhouette freeing her body. Fashion designer Coco Chanel revolutionized the shape of a woman, she became an innovator and trendsetter, her ideas contrary to the…
  3. Photo: Astrid LindgrenAstrid Lindgren (1907-2002) swedish writer. Author of novels for children, "Pippi Longstocking - Long Stocking" (1945-1952), "The Kid and Carlson, who lives on the Roof" (1955-1968), "Rasmus-bum" (1956), "The Brothers Lionheart" (1979), "Ronia, the Robber′s Daughter" (1981), etc. Remember how the…
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