The world′s first woman astronaut (1963), PhD, a hero of the Soviet Union, chairman of the Committee of Soviet Women (1968-1987). In 1987-1992 President of the Union of Friendship Societies and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. Since 1994, the head Rossiyskogo center of international scientific and cultural cooperation.
About her more, perhaps, many will write and tell, but Valentina is doing everything to make life difficult for his future biographers - she carefully hides her personal life, refuses to meet with journalists, does not write his memoirs, is not in favor of scandalous revelations. It stands apart from the "hangouts. Perhaps, in her modesty, expressed that the most "popular" education, which Forest blemishes condemns indiscretion, inordinate desire to be in the spotlight. Assess your need for your business, rather than the ability to build their advertisements - this wise precept has long been ridiculed in the world where money reigns. But Valentina has not yet delivered. Probably, the character she′s strong. And unlike many stars, one-day to maintain her fame have nothing to worry about. Actresses, writers, artists, even politicians - women - countless, and the first lady astronaut will always be one.
Hard to say what was in its success by luck, but that is an asset of her personal accomplishments.
We prefer dialectical conclusion - there are some things, and more. For example, can hardly be called good fortune birth of Stalin′s terror-stricken country, and even in a remote village ruined collectivization Maslennikovo Yaroslavl region. Even more difficult to call it a hungry childhood without a father happy. Denying Valya Survivors also tried his native homeland - Vladimir Tereshkov died a heroic death in a little-known today, "Finnish" campaign. But this unpretentious origins without tarnished, from the standpoint of the Soviet services, reputation played a crucial role in choosing the candidate-pervootkryvatelnitsy. So, go and see what′s what in this absurd world, "what is good and what is bad."
Valya grown up, left his native village, like many people, escaping from the ruined nest, and went to town. Again, a simple, but not the easiest solution - Tereshkova became a weaver. Perhaps only a small zigzag in a straight line izezzhennoy road defined its destiny: Valentine fond of parachuting and all the leisure time spent in the flying club. Hence her and enlisted in the cosmonaut corps.
Rivals on the fortune in Tereshkova was four - Valentina Ponomareva, Irina Solovieva, Tatiana Kuznetsova and Jeanne Yerkina. All the pretty, young and healthy.
As they dreamed of flying - the soul, overflowing with enthusiasm, the era′s thaw, clung to respectability. After the course of general space training only three of the candidate - Tereshkova, Solovieva, Ponomareva. That′s when fate was to have its say. The final choice fortunate made himself Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev. They say cock leaned in favor of Tereshkova, thanks to its impeccable proletarian origin, but may have some other arguments, yet unknown, suddenly turned the girl Valya first woman astronaut.
By the way, understudy Tereshkova also achieved success in life. Valentina Ponomareva rose to the rank of Colonel Aviation, defended her dissertation and working at the Institute of History of Science and Technology. Irina Solovieva also PhD. It is senior fellow at the test center for training of astronauts. In the women′s team consisting of the famous "Blizzard" Solovyov participated in many of the Antarctic and Arctic expeditions.
Yet she was only elected - "Seagull". These callsign world June 16, 1963 heard Valentina Tereshkova of the space "far". Before the "Seagull" just nine people traveled around the globe in Earth orbit. Woman astronaut in space, spent almost three days, and all three days of newspapers, radio and television around the world reported the event.
"Miss Universe" - a headline prefaced British newspaper Daily Express reported its Moscow correspondent. Apparently, in naming Tereshkova this title much more sense than the name "Miss Universe" some nesmyshlenuyu long-legged beauty.
Triumph Valentina organized by all the rules. The solemn meeting at the airport, the procession down the red carpet, awards (Tereshkova is the only woman in Russia-General), formal methods, permitted interviews and, of course, amenities. But for the outside facade of a successful minions of fortune hidden life′s problems. Authorities with a smug little smile, sought to uphold the myth that the Soviet people fly in space, like a walk, returning from the heights above the clouds became strong and cheerful.
But the first ships of a series of "East" to remind pilots of their cans. Gagarin, Titov, Popovich is not something to get up in the air, but even they could not move his arm. Imagine a three-day stay of the women on board in such circumstances. They say, returning to earth, Gagarin could not remember the month, day, forgotten the name of the designer queen, always cheerful and happy, he stayed for a week to adapt to severe melancholia.
According to Doctor of Medicine, an expert on post-flight adaptation of cosmonauts Vitaly Volovich woman′s body was totally unsuited to the conditions of flight in a vacuum.
The experiment was clearly premature. The desire to beat time itself - this flaw has always suffered Bolshevik emissaries - costly to the man in the Soviet Union. If male astronauts calcium in the body was restored in 10-12 days, Tereshkova was unable to stand on his feet for about a month. Pervasive cosmic rays act on a woman differently. The bones become fragile, broke from the slightest pressure, often encountered bleeding. Same Volovich argues that "Miss Universe" all my life living under the threat on the level ground to break a leg or bleed from the tiny wound.
However, anxiety about their health is usually not spoil the happiness when you are in their twenties. These flour Valentina Vladimirovna began in connection with childbirth. Tereshkova and Nikolayev Andriyan (cosmonaut-3) met before the flight in Star City, but the show of their novel state has decided to organize after Tereshkova became a folk hero "Cosmic wedding" directed the master himself - Nikita Khrushchev. Reception House in the Lenin Hills was filled with high-ranking personalities, toasts, gifts and greetings were supposed to bring joy and admiration for the young all over the world, but few people knew that instant "advice" to start the party child evoked a pair of space for young spouses panic.
They knew that the experiment with dogs, the astronauts failed miserably. Puppies are born blind, one even - three-legged, all soon perished. You can imagine the prospect, who imagined the future mother, flown in space.
According to that same Volovich, pregnancy Tereshkova proceeded very hard. Virtually the entire period of Valentine lay in the hospital. Still, she again won the mercy of fate - a girl born Alenka though weak, but normal. I must say and kind words about the Soviet state - at least for his own prestige, but it does not leave the child "space" parents without medical care. The girl was under constant medical supervision. And when in 1970 Andriyan Nikolaev second time flew into space six years old Alenka during a session of Radio reproachfully said: "Daddy, what did you did not take me with you? You have such a big ship ... "Today, Tereshkova′s daughter has her own family, and Valentina became a grandmother. Is not it a woman′s happiness?
However, the space family was not as strong as steel, used to make spaceships. Divorce was inevitable, but the union Nikolayev and Tereshkova was considered as a political issue, and when the gap found Brezhnev, the terribly worried. Former spouses, hostage Soviet decency, for a long time had to maintain his shoulder broken-down house.
Yet, this hypocrisy of the national scale, there was something rational - when our "really been pestering the woman" saw smart, always smooth in communication, calm Valentina Tereshkova - Chairman of the Committee of Soviet Women - that she felt that her own troubles just annoying bugs, own mistakes, which can be easily corrected.
For an entire generation of the sixties Tereshkova became a favorite symbol of the "right" life, which are uniformly placed the emphasis in career and family. Not for nothing more Yuri Gagarin wrote about her: "When Valya came to us in the group of cosmonauts, we are all very fond of her: not only the pilots, instructors, and our wives. She came into our lives as part of the birth family - simply, without affectation, with a strong desire to learn the already established tradition. And, if possible, to make something new, its ... "
Perhaps, in this dignified acceptance of the environment, its pros and cons, and is the basic formula for success Valentina Vladimirovna, and the fate of so graciously removes from her unhappiness. As in that memorable day, when the killer instead of Brezhnev′s car shot a column of astronauts. Bullets passed under the seat, Valentina Tereshkova, but it did not touch itself. Apparently, this is luck.
In 1987, Valentina led the Union of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries.
Now it is Russia′s Center for International and Cultural Cooperation under the government of Russia. In other words, this is not a public organization and governmental structure, and our heroine in it - like a minister.
Her second family - you can say, "well-generals. Her husband, too general, only medical service. Yuri Shaposhnikov - Director of the Central Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics in the past - the deputy chief surgeon of the armed forces. They live in Star City, a four-room apartment on the seventh floor of the house astronauts. Early in the morning every day leave to work in Moscow. And still the people pay attention to the Star-trimmed, smart, beautiful woman, not a minute is not allowing himself to relax, calm and confident. Its "star" located so high that it needs no highlighting.