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Chichen Itza - City Maya

Photo - Chichen Itza - City Maya
«Chichen Itza -
city Maya»

To the east was the kingdom of the Red Chuck - came out blazing scarlet shone, reigned in the north of the White Chuck - his icy breath has brought snow and rain; Black Chuck lived in the west, where sandy desert loomed over the mountains to the south, where yellowing savanna and swayed motley grasses of the jungle, the rules of Yellow Chuck. And between the realms of the gods lay the country of the Maya people. All sides flocked to the fertile land of the Maya Chaki, rustling showers and thunderstorms rumbling. They tilted giant jugs of water from the heavens came down rainbow, and eternally young god of corn and the ruler of forest Hume Kaash began to sprout green shoots.

So says one of the legends of the Maya. Much has been their beautiful legends, no less than beautiful cities with beautiful names - Palenque, Tikal, Uxmal, Chichen Itza ... These cities were built of stone palaces, decorated with carved patterns, stepped pyramids with temples on the upper floors of the Sun, astronomical observatories, stadiums, ball courts, stone arena theaters.

Name of the Mayan city of Chichen Itza means literally "mouth of the well, to fall." In the middle of V century Itza tribe found on this site Cenote (natural well) and settled around him.

Prior to the X century Chichen Itza was a rich and beautiful city, one of the most important centers of the Mayan civilization in many ways mysterious even today.

Photo - Chichen Itza - City Maya
«Chichen Itza -
city Maya»

The city has a thriving arts and crafts, temples committed lush mystery for days, often with human sacrifices. In 692, the Indian tribe of the AIC, for whatever reason, left its main center, already majestic and beautiful. With their departure all the buildings and temples came to desolation.

In the IX century in the Yucatan Peninsula it Toltec tribe: they conquered a large part of the Maya state, captured the city of Chichen Itza and made it their new capital. In all likelihood, the Maya and Toltecs did not fight with each other, merging them were peaceful. Toltec took the Maya language, their achievements in astronomy and mathematics, they learned to cultivate the land. Сами РѕРЅРё принесли новые РїРѕСЂСЏРґРєРё, вместе СЃ РЅРёРјРё РїСЂРёС?ли Рё новые Р±РѕРіРё. Maya adopted from the Toltec art erect round the building, resembling a small tower observatories began to worship their god. Scientists do not exclude that Chichen Itza was the capital of Tula, the exiled supreme god-leader Topiltzin-Quetzalcoatl, the Maya who was known as Kukulkan. To do this, God was built pyramid "Castillo", built on the ruins of more ancient structures. Domination over the whole surrounding area, the pyramid is a 9-tiered structure with stairs on all four sides: Each ladder consists of 91 stages.

His symmetrical arrangement, strict-orientation on the cardinal points and the number of steps of the staircase symbolize the seasons, months and days.

Photo - Chichen Itza - City Maya
«Chichen Itza -
city Maya»

During the vernal and autumnal equinox here you can watch as the sun′s rays fall on the stones of the pyramid so that the Feathered Serpent Kukulkan, head and tail, respectively, which were carved on the top and bottom of the pyramid, as if alive and wriggling, begins to crawl out of temple.

Toltec ruler Feathered Serpents first ordered the construction of the vanquished Mayan city sanctuary of the god Quetzal, whose name he bore. Spaniards conquered Mexico, called this architectural monument "Caracol" ( "Snail"), as well as a sea shell (snail) was one of the usual attributes Quetzal - lord of the wind.

Cylindrical shape in Mexico had only the sanctuary of the Feathered Serpent. But the Maya to associate this building not only with the god Quetzal, but also with their calendar. The building, originally round, then was enclosed terrace: on the first floor Karakol construction workers built a second floor, too round, but much smaller. Within the walls of the upper floors did four square holes, and in the center of the superstructure, thus, the Observatory, where the priests watched the heavenly bodies.

Astrologer Maya used in Karakol double calendar, and hence the dual system of accounts when at Chichen Itza joined Feathered Serpents, this system was added, and the third calendar year in which the length of time determined by the treatment of Venus - 584 days.

Photo - Chichen Itza - City Maya
«Chichen Itza -
city Maya»

Indian astronomers, who were looking into the relationship luminaries absolute order, quickly found a relationship between "civil" year of the Maya and the year of the planet Venus.

At a distance of three flights of arrows from the center of Chichen Itza was located "Well of Death", in which he lived Hume-Chuck - the god of rain and moisture. Cenote Mayan considered sacred: the rivers was not around, and suddenly at this place limestone collapsed and there was water. Under it disappeared bushes and trees, only the white walls of the well among the lush greenery of the jungle, like the teeth of the god Yum-Chuck, demanded the victims. If God will be angry, everything on earth will perish: trees, birds, beasts. No rain all burned, and then be killed by humans, leaving only the high mountains and the boundless sky. To god Yum-Chuck showed mercy, he needs the most beautiful girls, whom he is waiting at the bottom of the Sacred kolodtsa.1

Not far from the Sacred Cenote towered House black letter ", so named for the image Mayan priest, which is located in the central building: the figure of a priest decorates a wreath of the black watercolor paint Mayan hieroglyphs. In black letters, the walls of the buildings have red imprints of human hands, which can not be seen in any other place.

Photo - Chichen Itza - City Maya
«Chichen Itza -
city Maya»

Czech scientist M. Stingl noted that they could leave the builders′ houses black writing, which gives the impression of an unfinished building, abandoned prematurely. In the middle part of the building is a broad staircase, but before the erection of the next floor and do not turn came, moreover, of the 18 premises "Houses of black letter, decorated with reliefs only one.

As a result, the gains Toltec formed a mixed Mayan-Toltec culture, which existed for several centuries. For the architecture of that time were characterized by the imposing temples, built of loose limestone. Temples stood on the massive grounds platforms, richly decorated with bas-reliefs and wall paintings. This was a "Temple of Warriors, which was built in honor of Toltec warriors, whose images reproduce most of the columns of the temple complex. Entrance to the temple guarded by an image of God, which led to the warlike Toltec Chichen Itza: the two high columns in the form of the Feathered Serpent. "Temple of Warriors" was decorated with many frescoes depicting mythological, historical, and even household plots, but particularly prevalent here images of the jaguar and an eagle.

In "Temple of Warriors, led the once-spacious room with columns. Countless columns, representing Toltec warriors, stand today, only without the roof.

It was discovered and a male figure, shown in a somewhat unusual position: reclining, sitting up on his elbows, with head held high. A stone idol, survivor of the temple and the city looks just as proudly and mockingly, as 1000 years ago. Chuck-Mool - warrior god of the Toltec tribe: he holds a large platter, which may once kindles the sacred fire, or put it in the offerings to the gods.

"Temple of Warriors, unearthed an American scientist Earl Morris, who found that the foundation of the temple even more ancient walled sanctuary. He struck the wall outside the church and inside it found exactly the same temple, only smaller. And on the inside walls of both churches E. Morris saw the beautiful murals depicting the heroic deeds of soldiers of the Feathered Serpent in the conquest of Yucatan.

 
  1. Education and Reference — World Cities
  2. Photo: San FranciscoIn March 1776 in the northern part of the peninsula, which is now the city of San Francisco, was founded Presidio - the first Spanish military fort and the first Catholic mission - Mission Dolores. At forty nameless hills grew fragrant…
  3. Photo: ANCIENT ATHENSOliva - a sacred tree to the Greeks, the tree of life. Without it, it is impossible to Greek valley, sandwiched between mountains and sea, and very rocky slopes of the mountains, where olive groves alternate with vineyards. Oliva climb almost…
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