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Lucius Cornelius Sulla

Photo - Lucius Cornelius Sulla
«Lucius Cornelius Sulla»

(138-78 BC BC.)

The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.).

One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals. Rod had two branches - plebeian and patrician. By plebeian surnames belonged names Balbi, Gauls, Meruly and others. The most famous in the plebeian branch of the family was Lucius Cornelius Cornelius Balbi, who became one of the closest associates of Guy Julius Caesar and the first among non-Romans won Consulate. Of the women kind of Cornelia most famous include the daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus the Elder. She became known not only as the mother of popular tribunes Tiberius and Gaius Gracchi, but also as a very educated woman. After the death of her husband, Tiberius Gracchus Semproniya, Cornelia devoted herself to the care and upbringing of children, and their she was twelve. She agreed to become the wife of King Ptolemy. Once, when asked about why she wears jewelry, she said, pointing to his children: "Here is my adornment.

Greatest influence in Rome used the names patrician branch of the family Cornelia. From the famous general Scipio worth noting, the most famous generals of the war with Carthage. Representatives Cornelia stood out in the Republican period, they occupied the post of senior senators and high priests. Among them is worth noting Lucie Tsinnu - famous Democrat, the last period of the Republic.

By Cornelia treated and patrician name Sul. Ancient historians elevate this name not only to patricians, but to eupatrides, which means literally "place of the illustrious father, that is, to the highest representatives of the tribal nobility. These include, for example, the consul Rufin, famous for having been expelled from the Senate for having had more than ten pounds of silver dishes, which the law does not permit.

Descendants Rufina had not been so rich, and many there were on the verge of poverty. The most famous representative of this family name was Lucius Cornelius Sulla.

He was born in 138 BC AD. in the family, which differed nobility, but not wealth. Sulla received a traditional education for a noble Roman. His detailed biography is in Plutarch, and from it you can see that Sulla spent his youth partially in frivolous amusements, partly in classes in literature. On his appearance Plutarch wrote: "All his face was covered with rough red rash under which some places could see a white skin." Even Plutarch remarked on his mind - a heavy and penetrating, and light blue eyes, combined with complexion and fiery red hair, Sulla did look terrible and trudnoperenosimym.

Military service, he started late, but managed to quickly make a career. His success, he considered himself, he was obliged to luck and special protection of the gods. He had a remarkable intelligence, daring courage and cunning. Sulla was often contrary to established rules and traditions.

In 107 BC AD. he became quaestor Consul Maria Jugurthine during the war and contributed to its end, prompting through skillful negotiation king Bocchus Mauritanian give yogurt. Having captured Jugurtha in 105 BC AD., Sylla won in Rome, loud glory and hatred Maria.

Photo - Lucius Cornelius Sulla
«Lucius Cornelius Sulla»

In 103 BC AD. He filled the post of legate during the war with the Germans, and the following year he was elected military tribune. Took part in the wars with the Cimbri and the Teutons, distinguished himself during the Allied war. Soon the talk of Rome, Sulla, commander, and his military victories enabled him to move out to the forefront, pushing Gaius Marius.

In 87 BC BC. Sulla was elected consul and was ordered to send troops to the first war with Mithridates king of Pontus, which caused outrage among supporters of Mary. Sulla had already managed to go to the army, so there they sailed to Pontus, as a surprise to learn that in Rome, the party led by popular tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus, Sulla, removed from his command and gave the consular authorities to Mary.

Taking advantage of its broad support of the army, Sulla refused to lay down their consulate and led his troops to Rome. "He did not follow the prearranged plan, but lost control of himself, given his anger to dispose of what is happening" - Plutarch wrote about these events. He became the first statesman of Rome, who used the army to fight against political opponents. Entering the army in the city, he made the People′s Assembly and Senate to declare the principal of his opponents as traitors to the fatherland, and his head was even declared Maria reward.

Over the next year, while in Rome, Sulla has taken several steps to consolidate its power here. Sulpicius and his supporters have been brutally repressed. For consolidating the power of the oligarchy Sylla has implemented a number of legislative measures, after which the system of government in Rome has undergone significant changes. Was limited to the legislative power of the national assembly, all the laws proposed by the tribune of the people, subject to prior discussion in the Senate. The number of senators was increased by 300 new members from among the supporters of Sulla.

Having expected consulate, Sulla, led six legions went to war. In 87 BC BC. his army (30 thousand) landed in Epirus and assault on Athens, which had been the main base of the Pontic army and navy. After breaking in Boeotia expelled against Pontiac detachments, Sulla began the siege of Athens. After long resistance to Athens and the port of Piraeus were taken by storm, and suffered terrible looting. Sulla widely resorted to the "confiscated" the treasures of Greek temples. He was not spared either Olympia or Delphi, and at the siege of Athens, on his orders were cut down sacred groves of the Academy and Lika.

In 86 BC BC. Sulla defeated the army at the Battle of Chaeronea (Boeotia) outnumbered its Pontic army (100 thousand infantrymen and 10 thousand men), led by commander Mithradates Arhilaem. As a result of this victory, many Greek cities began to cross over to the side of Rome. Despite the victories won by Sulla, the grouping of its opponents, once again seized power in Rome, Sulla decided to remove from the command of the army. In Greece, has already arrived consul Flaccus with two legions and change the order of Sulla. However, the numerical superiority on the side of Sulla, and Flaccus decided not to tempt fate, but rather to strengthen his troops Sulla in Asia Minor.

In 85 BC BC.

Photo - Lucius Cornelius Sulla
«Lucius Cornelius Sulla»

in the city Orhomene (Boeotia), a battle between the new Pontic army and the legions of Sulla. This battle was the bloodiest of all battles of the first war with Mithridates. Under the pressure of superior enemy forces, the legions were crushed and fled. Then Sulla himself, tearing the banner of a legionnaire, he led troops in the new attack. This helped turn the tide of battle, the fate of which was decided in favor of Rome.

Soon Sulla was able to organize a force that drove the fleet of Mithridates and took control of the Aegean Sea. Simultaneously, the army Flaccus in Asia Minor, seized the city and the base of Mithridates - Pergamon.

Mithridates was no longer able to wage war because of his lack of new reserves and asked the Sulla world. Sylla himself wanted to get away with war, to go to Rome to fight their political opponents. Therefore, he demanded that the purification of Mithradates conquered territories in Asia Minor, the issue of prisoners and defectors, and providing him with 80 ships and 3 thousand talents of indemnity. Concluded Dardansky world and defeat in Asia Minor fimbriae troops sent against him, Sulla served with the army in Italy. In the spring of 83 BC until AD. He landed in Brundizii. His soldiers took an oath not to go home until the end to support their leader. In Italy, he opposed the two armies. Part of the Italian population had sided with Sulla.

Consuls were waiting for him advance in Campania, where they pulled most of its troops. However, Sulla landed in Puglia, which turned into a springboard for further advance on Rome. Here, his 40-strong army has received a significant increase - on his side moved Pompeius with two legions, Sulla, and soon moved his army in the campaign.

Here in the city was divided Tifata army consul Norbaev - one of the companions of Mary, and the army of another consul - Scipio - defected to Sulla, seduced by a high salary.

During the winter of 83/82 BC BC. Sulla and his opponents were preparing for future operations. Sulla divided his forces into two groups. One took Pitsen and Etruria, and the other under the command of Sulla marched on Rome. In the town Signe (Sakriporta) Sulla′s army defeated the numerically superior to its strength, consisting of recruits under the command of the son of Mary, Gaius Marius the Younger. (He committed suicide after the fall of the city.) Leaving part of his troops in Rome, Sulla marched on the enemy army, concentrated in the city Preneste. Leaving a detachment to blockade the city, Sulla went to Etruria, where the defeated army of the consul Carbon. Sam Carbon, leaving the army, fled to Africa.

Most of the supporters of Mary continued to be blocked in Preneste and soon had to surrender. However, in October 82 years before Mr. BC. aid to the besieged broke the 70 thousandth army of Samnites, which relieve the besieged and together they marched on Rome. Hastily styanuv to Rome all the means at its disposal troops, November 1, 82 years before Mr. BC. Sulla intercepted the enemy at the gates of Rome Kollinskih. The battle lasted for two days and one night. Only at the end of the second day of Sulla was able to strike the final blow.

After their victory Sulla sent a letter to the Senate, in which he proposed for the structure of, give it a dictatorial powers.

Sulla was appointed dictator for an indefinite period. Now, to strengthen its position, to meet his revenge and rewarding their supporters, Sulla introduced the so-called proscriptions - lists of their enemies to be destroyed. These lists are included, and rich people whose property was to be transferred to the treasury. (According to ancient authors, these lists were made about 300 names.) Relatives and subsequent offspring of registered Sulla deprived of civil rights and could not hold public office.

Terror also hit and the whole city and region, primarily Samny and Etruria, who took an active part in the fight against Sulla. During the terror of the head of the executed were exhibited at the forum for public viewing. During the proscriptions killed 90 senators and 2600 horsemen.

After the confiscation of property and land in the hands of the opponents of Sulla were huge amounts of money. A considerable part of them were supporters of Sulla. Of the confiscated land, many soldiers - members of military campaigns under his command, were given plots of land. Each soldier received up to 30 uger fertile land.

In search of new allies among the population not only in Rome but throughout Italy Sulla was forced to recognize the equality of all its citizens. In Rome his reliance steel and tempered to freedom of slaves belonging to the dead in proscription. According to custom, they were given the right of Roman citizenship and the name of who sent them to the will - both in Rome there were 10 thousand freedmen Cornelia, in which solutions were determined at public meetings. Some freedmen came in in the detachment of bodyguards Sulla.

When Sulla was particularly enhanced the role of the Senate and the limited power of the national assembly. Sulla gave new powers to the senate - gave him control over finances and the right of censorship. Composition of the Senate, he has also increased from 300 to 600 members from among their supporters.

Special Sulla blow inflicted on the people′s tribunes. All their proposals were first discussed in the Senate. It was agreed that a man who takes the post of tribune of the people, can no longer qualify for higher public office.

After Sylla became convinced that he has reached his goal, he suddenly resigned as dictator, and settled on his estate at Cumae, where the preference for literature, and indulged in pleasure. Here he died in 78 BC BC. of apoplexy.

Contemporaries wrote that Sulla consisted of two halves - the fox and the lion, and it is uncertain which of them was the most dangerous. Sylla himself spoke of themselves as the darlings of destiny, and even ordered the Senate to call themselves Sulla happy. He really lucky, because in the war, he never lost a battle.

But their successes Sulla was obliged not only favorable circumstances, how his personal qualities, exceptional strength of mind and body, unwavering consistency and boundless cruelty. The refusal of the dictatorial power he was not really about moral considerations as the desire to live in his pleasure, without incurring any obligations, which at the end of life Sulla became annoying.

 
  1. People and biographies — Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Paul von HindenburgGermanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914). During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their…
  3. Photo: Peter Nikolayevich WrangelBaron, Lieutenant-General. Rhode Wrangel, leading his descent from the XIII century, was of Danish origin. Many of its representatives have served under the flags of Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Holland and Spain, as well as Livonia and Estonia finally confirmed for…
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