1. Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
  3. Photo: Peter Nikolayevich WrangelBaron, Lieutenant-General. Rhode Wrangel, leading his descent from the XIII century, was of Danish origin. Many of its representatives have served under the flags of Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Holland and Spain, as well as Livonia and Estonia finally confirmed for…

Paul von Hindenburg

Photo - Paul Von Hindenburg
«Paul Von Hindenburg»

Germanic military and political figure, General-Field Marshal (1914).

During the three years before the First World War in Germany was 470 generals, but those whose names were widely known to the public, hardly had accumulated a dozen. General Hindenburg to their number did not belong. Fame and glory came to him later, and now in 1911 at the age of 64 years he retired to devote to military service for over 40 years.

Hindenburg belonged to the famous old Benekkendorfov-Hindenburg, leading back to the XIII century. His ancestors had distinguished themselves in military campaigns against the Slavs, moving from West to East, while in 1260 not settled on the banks of the Oder River. Being owners of estates, Benekkendorfy served to protect the land and were mercilessly exploited the local population. They served the dukes of Luxembourg, and then Hohenzollerns. Benekkendorfy tend to have large families, and many of their descendants who were left without hereditary lands, were employed for military service in various foreign army, bringing the oath of allegiance to the Hungarian, French kings and princes. One branch of the dynasty and settled in Russia.

At the beginning of XVIII century, Hans Heinrich von Benekkendorf took a wife in the family line Hindenburg-Falkenberg. Children of this marriage is not given, and the genus Hindenburg could fade away. Hans Heinrich, in order to avoid this, left his land to his nephew Johann von Benekkendorfu with the condition that his descendants would bear the name of von Benekkendorf und von Hindenburg. Officially the change of name due to bureaucratic red tape was formalized only in 1789.

One of the sons of Johann Otto Ludwig, served as chairman of the landlord of the credit society, thus able not only to build a huge house in the family estate, but also to purchase two seats.

Photo - Paul Von Hindenburg
«Paul Von Hindenburg»

However, during the agrarian crisis of 20 to 30 years of the XIX century, he had to part with land acquisition, but he managed to keep Noydek - patrimony Benekkendorfov-Hindenburg. He had six sons, five of whom enlisted, giving up their share of the inheritance in favor of one of the brothers.

The youngest of the brothers - Robert - chose military service. In 1845 he received a patent officer and became a lieutenant. In the same year he married Louise Shvikkart - the daughter of a military doctor. Their firstborn, who was born Oct. 2, 1847, received the baptismal name Paul Ludwig Hans Anton.

Paul von Hindenburg from birth was scheduled to become a soldier. Initial military training he received in the Cadet Corps, after which in 1866 he enlisted in the 3rd Guards Regiment in the rank of lieutenant. He participated in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 and for the Military Merit was awarded the Order of the Red Eagle. Then, together with the regiment he took part in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871 years and who distinguished themselves in the battle of Saint-Privat, was presented to the Iron Cross.

In 1873 Hindenburg decided to continue military education and enrolled in the Academy, from which he graduated in 1876. His subsequent military career was normal for an officer of the Prussian army. In the next few years he has mainly dealt with staff work: in 1877, he served as an officer in the General Staff, 1878-meters - at the headquarters of the 2 nd Army Corps, in the 1881-meters - at the headquarters of 1 st division chief of operations. In 1884, long Hindenburg was appointed to the army, becoming commander of the company the 58 th Infantry Regiment, but the following year he returned as an officer in the General Staff. In 1888 he transferred to the headquarters of the army corps, and a year later he was appointed Chief of Department A-2 infantry General Department of Military Ministry.

Photo - Paul Von Hindenburg
«Paul Von Hindenburg»

Replacing a few posts, in 1900, Hindenburg became commander of the 28 th Division, and in 1903 - commander of the 4 th Army Corps.

Paul von Hindenburg was a steady and patient man, but he did not have enough money or a powerful patron in the court and he had all to himself. One day in 1909 during military training maneuvers, he made a mistake that led to the victory of the perceived enemy, and in 1911 he resigned voluntarily, without seeing more chance of career growth. By this time he was in the rank of general of infantry.

When the First World War, the German command needed senior officer corps, and the Hindenburg was re-drafted into the army. In August 1914 he was appointed commander of the 8 th Army, serving on the Eastern Front. Against his 8 th Army operated 2-nd Russian army of General Samsonov, which is more than twice the size of the army Hindenburg. Using the tactical mistakes of the Russian command, Hindenburg, not only managed to oust the Russian army in East Prussia, but also almost completely destroy it in the battle of Tannenberg.

In September 1914, Hindenburg was appointed commander of the 9 th Army, with his subordinate, and also 8-th, which was headed by General von Schubert. By this time the situation on the Eastern Front was crucial for Germany - the main forces of the Russian army (about 20 shells) are very close to the borders of East Germany. In November, Hindenburg was appointed commander of the East and on its own initiative began to conduct military operations. Having compared with the Russian army was very weak forces, Hindenburg had requested reinforcements, but received them too late and could not achieve complete success in defeating the Russian army. He developed a plan of action, which left a "thin line" front to feign the presence of German troops across the front line.

Photo - Paul Von Hindenburg
«Paul Von Hindenburg»

Key same forces he had sent a roundabout path to the rear of the Russian army. Germans simultaneous blow to the rear and the flanks of Russian troops crushed them and forced to move from offensive to defensive.

After an unsuccessful attack in France, the German High Command drew attention to the situation on the Eastern Front. In February 1915, the Eastern Front were transferred to 4 buildings, in which Hindenburg defeated the 10-th Russian army under the command of General FV Sievers.

During the 1915 Hindenburg, directly or indirectly conducted operations to rescue the Allied Austrian army, which suffered defeat by the Russian army. He won a winter battle in Masuria, and in May and June with Mackensen has made a successful breakthrough in the Russian line of Dove - Container, so by the end of the front line was shifted to the east for 400 miles. But following the breakthrough of the German troops was less successful because of the skilful counterattack Brusilov.

In September 1916, Hindenburg had been transferred from the Eastern Front to the west, to take over as Chief of General Staff of the field and lead the overall command. His deputy was appointed Ludendorff, with whom he fought on the Eastern Front. Their appointment was encouraged troops at a loss after the slaughter at Verdun. Hindenburg developed for the Western Front, a rational strategy of defense. In France, built a new line of fortifications, the so-called "Hindenburg Line", to reflect the occurrence of the English. But the chances of complete defeat of the Allied armies had long been overlooked and in the east and west, and the introduction of large-scale military operations of German submarines has led to the fact that the war had entered the United States.

In 1918, managed to sign the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Soviet Russia, and released from the Eastern Front, the division were deployed to the Western Front.

Step up military operations on the Western Front, initially led to success and almost ended in the defeat of Britain and France in this war. But this success was temporary for the German troops. In November 1918, a truce was arranged in heavy conditions in Germany, and Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate. At the Hindenburg was entrusted with the evacuation of German troops, and then he was appointed commander of the eastern border of Germany.

In June 1919 he retired and settled in Hanover.

Hindenburg enjoyed extraordinary popularity, was considered a national hero. These he owes to a large extent their success in the presidential election. In 1925, the block right-wing parties made Hindenburg elected president of the Weimar Republic. By announcing that he intends to adhere strictly to the Weimar Constitution and the Treaty of Versailles, Hindenburg soon became encourage military-monarchist and Nazi organizations. Politics Hindenburg contributed to the revival of Germany′s war potential and the restoration of Germany′s military power. In 1932, Hindenburg was re-elected president. But the age and deteriorating health took its toll and its political power waned. 30 January 1933 Hindenburg asked Hitler to form a government, thus transferring power in the hands of the Nazis. Paul von Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934 at his family estate Noydeke.

 
  1. People and biographies — Aristocrats
  2. Photo: Lucius Cornelius Sulla(138-78 BC BC.)The Roman commander, praetor (93 BC AD.), Consul (88 BC AD.) Dictator (82 BC AD.). One of the most ancient Roman families is kind of Cornelia, who gave the Roman history of a large number of statesmen and generals.…
  3. Photo: Peter Nikolayevich WrangelBaron, Lieutenant-General. Rhode Wrangel, leading his descent from the XIII century, was of Danish origin. Many of its representatives have served under the flags of Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Holland and Spain, as well as Livonia and Estonia finally confirmed for…
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