1. Rewards
  2. Photo: Sisters of Charity - Florence Nightingale MedalIn July 1859 the Swiss physician A. Dunant was present at the battlefield in the village of Solferino in Lombardy. He was a kind and sentimental, and therefore suffering injuries caused in him a burning desire to help the suffering. But…
  3. Photo: Receive awards Roman legionariesMany researchers (in particular, Professor of the University of Perm AV Kolobov) felt that in any army ancient world did not exist a developed system of military awards, like the Romans. In the time of the Roman Republic there were different…

Order of Saint Andrew

Order Of Saint Andrew - Order of Saint Andrew
«Order of Saint Andrew»

Mention of the Order dates from 1699 in the diary of John Korb, who served as secretary of the Austrian Embassy in Russia.

Order up to the Battle of Poltava were made with a sloping St. Andrew's cross, covered with a blue glaze with a gold border. On the Order was a picture of the first Apostle of Christ, because it is according to the chronicles the Apostle Andrew preached in the lands of ancient Slavs.

Each line of the cross housed letters which marked reduction sentence: "Saint Andrew - Patron of Russia", and placed in the middle of the rays cross, where his background was portrayed crucified apostle. Order crowned imperial crown sample XVII century.

Order was suspended on special lugs, which is passed satin ribbon. In special occasions, the order was attached to a wide blue ribbon nosivshayasya over his right shoulder. By Order relied octagonal gold star that is worn on the left side of the uniform, and worn every day.

Order of Saint Andrew
«Order of Saint Andrew»

In the central part of the star as St. Andrew's cross, but around him there is an inscription: "For Faith and Loyalty."

For almost thirty years, since the establishment of the Order, was the only order of the Russian Empire.

Peter I was involved in the drafting of the charter of the Order of St. Andrew. Order was for senior military and civilian officials. In this case, the candidate must necessarily be over 25 years old and without a disability.

During the reign of Peter I was a tough condition, which control the number of lifetime members of the Order of St. Andrew, there should have been no more than 12 people.

The first who received the Order was Fedor Alekseevich Golovin which featured a lucid mind and excelled in military and diplomatic affairs. The first knight was deservedly awarded because it was organized Golovin invitations construction foreman for the Russian fleet, and sent their students to study in foreign countries.

Order Of Saint Andrew - Order of Saint Andrew
«Order of Saint Andrew»

"Military Order of Maritime Affairs", an analog of the Ministry of Defense, and the "Ambassadors Order 'analog Foreign Ministry headed by Alexey Golovin.

Another Knight of St. Andrew was Ivan Mazepa, a Ukrainian hetman, who personally awarded Peter the Great for military feats in the war with the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean khan.

For the time of the reign of Peter I of members of the Order were 38 people.

Among them was the sixth knight himself Peter I, which was awarded to him by Alexey Golovin for the command in the naval battle, the Swedes took place at the mouth of the Neva River. Gen. James Vilimovich Bruce, a member of the Battle of Poltava, commanded the artillery in the battle.

Admiral Fyodor Matveevich Apraksin led the capture of the fortress of Vyborg. Once on the Gulf firmed ice and sea links with the city ended.

Order Of Saint Andrew - Order of Saint Andrew
«Order of Saint Andrew»

Admiral forces besieged the city and began to assault bombardment of the city. ChereLui Aleksandrz-two weeks the city capitulated. By the Order of St. Andrew the admiral was awarded the golden sword with diamond inlays.

Commander of the Order shall be at the ceremony in a wig with a velvet cap, which had a multi-colored feathers, two white, one red.

During the reign of Paul I Knights of banned further decorate their order. Prepared "Establishment of the Russian order" strictly ordered to wear and appearance of the Order of St. Andrew, which was supposed to determine the main award in the Empire. After the coronation of Paul I is the establishment, he refused to sign.

Order began to complain on the personal opinion of Paul I, he was a pious man, and the regular holders of the Order became a priest, first Metropolitan Gabriel, and after the birth of the great princes. Babies automatically became a knight of the Order of St.

Order Of Saint Andrew - Order of Saint Andrew
«Order of Saint Andrew»

Andrew, which was wrapped in a ribbon of St. Andrew. The star of the Order also changed: instead of the Apostle Andrew put the emblem of the Russian Empire, the two-headed eagle.

World War II expanded the Knights of the Order of St. Andrew. Emperor Alexander I for the successful company 1812-1814-x against the French Empire awarded eight soldiers. Thus for five years before he Napoleon Bonaparte was awarded the Order of St. Andrew and his two Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier and Joachim Murat.

Another foreigner in 1815, English Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley Wellington , for Napoleon's company was awarded the Order of St. Andrew.

Order received for civil or military feats are not different, but in 1855, the Order of Military Merit, let's add two crossed swords.

With the advent of Soviet rule, all the king's awards were abolished.

In modern Russia, the Order was revived in 1998, its name was changed to the Order of St. Andrew, which apparently was different from its predecessor. Instead of the royal eagle coat of arms placed in modern Russia.

The status of the Order of St. Andrew preserved as the highest award, which recognizes citizens of Russia for exceptional services to the motherland, and foreign citizens for services to Russia.

First Knight of St. Andrew was Dmitry Likhachev, just as holders of the Order are fifteen people. He was awarded the Order of the writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, but he refused to receive the award.

Fifteenth Knight in March 2011 was Mikhail Gorbachev. All holders of public figures of science, literature and medicine, besides Kalashnikov Mikhail Kalashnikov.

 
  1. Education and Reference — Rewards
  2. Photo: Sisters of Charity - Florence Nightingale MedalIn July 1859 the Swiss physician A. Dunant was present at the battlefield in the village of Solferino in Lombardy. He was a kind and sentimental, and therefore suffering injuries caused in him a burning desire to help the suffering. But…
  3. Photo: Receive awards Roman legionariesMany researchers (in particular, Professor of the University of Perm AV Kolobov) felt that in any army ancient world did not exist a developed system of military awards, like the Romans. In the time of the Roman Republic there were different…
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