1. Painter
  2. Photo: Ilya RepinRepin was a model of selfless devotion to art. The artist wrote: "Art, I love you more goodness ... Love secretly, jealously, like an old drunkard - terminally. Wherever I go, whatever amused, no matter how admired, no matter what he…
  3. Photo: Vladimir MakovskiyMakovsky - one of the most popular Russian artists of the genre painters of the second half of XIX century. He is known as the author of numerous paintings, truthfully and versatile life shows various levels of Russian society of his…

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn

Photo - Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn
«Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn»

The first biography of the artist was Jan Orlers, mayor of Leiden.

"Son Herritsa Harmensz van Rijn and Nelthen Willems was born in Leiden, 15 July 1606.'s Parents put him to study Latin in school, Leiden University, referring to his subsequent admission to the city or public service, so that later he could assist them. But soon discovered a natural tendency boy to the art of painting and drawing, so that the parents were forced to take him out of school and to further develop his talent, sent him to the painter to study the original rules. Then they decided to transfer him to Jacob van Izaksu Svanenburhu that the boy learned him further. There he remained for three years and made such progress, and so strengthened his love for art, that all enthralled the young men of promise to become a wonderful artist. His father then thought best to give it to further improve the already well-known artist Peter Lastmanu who lived in Amsterdam.

Here he stayed for about six months, became completely independent master, and soon - one of the greatest artists of his century. Since it works extremely liked citizens of Amsterdam, he received numerous orders for paintings and portraits, and all wanted to, he moved from Leiden to Amsterdam, which he did in 1630 and in 1647 still resided there. "

During his studies at Lastman in 1623 Rembrandt became close friends with artist Ian Leavens, who became his friend and companion for many years. A few months later he was engaged in a well-known artists of the time the brothers John and Jacob pinnace.

Together with Leavens Rembrandt returned to Leiden, where he worked from 1625 until 1631. Some time with the artists even had a common workshop.

Was strongly influenced by karavadzhizma already in the early, small-format things: bringing in the Temple (c. 1628-1629), "Simeon in the Temple" (1631), the artist pays special attention to emotional and psychological possibilities of light and shade.

Photo - Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn
«Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn»

Along with religious paintings the most important genre for the young Rembrandt portrait becomes. In addition to painting Rembrandt also studied etching, a technique which significantly improved.

In 1631 th or early 1632 Rembrandt arrived in Amsterdam. Artist gaining fame by writing, "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tyulpa.

The artist creates a group portrait. Medics surrounded Dr. Tulpes, dissects the corpse's hand. Concerned, the living entity, individual reaction of each member of this anatomy lesson makes the picture psychologically accurate, bright, innovative.

He lives at the dealer Hendrick van Eylenbyurha paintings, which cover him, arranges orders for portraits, which creates a young artist's reputation fashion a successful master.

In 1634 Rembrandt married Saskia van Hendrik niece Eylenburg, the daughter of a wealthy burgomaster frislandskogo kind. This marriage gave him the favorite clientele of the capital of Holland.

By 1639 a successful artist and his wife bought a magnificent house in Amsterdam. Their children died in infancy, Titus, who was born in 1641, his father bury a year before his death.

To thirty years is a series of portraits of his wife Saskia. She was the favorite model of the artist. So, the picture of "Flora" Rembrandt painted Saskia shortly before the birth of their son Titus. No less interesting is "Self Portrait with Saskia" (1634). Raising a glass and asked those who look at the picture, the artist invites the viewer as if to share his immense joy and happiness.

Saskia served as a model for the famous "Dan", and in one of the servants of the artist depicted himself.

"The picture strikes sensuality and richness of color. Soft, the reflections of the curtains, gleaming metal objects like light envelop the nude figure on the bed ... Here we see a girl imprisoned in the Tower on the orders of his father, to her under the guise of golden rain penetrates Zeus, and seduces it.

Photo - Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn
«Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn»

Indeed, there is no doubt that the lover of the invisible approaching, is puzzled servant, and she signs invites her lover to share her bed. gilded cherub in hand shackles top looks almost mad with grief, why - that we truly never know " (D. Mannering).

In 1642, Saskia died favorite. It was at this time of Rembrandt's most famous wrote his painting "Night Watch". Tells NA Livshits:

Corporation Amsterdam shooters in 1642 ordered the Rembrandt group portrait of members of the guild. It was the honorable and lucrative order ... Rembrandt solved this problem completely in the spirit of the XVII century, and, moreover, mid-century, he introduced himself together, dynamic scenes, in which all participants take their place, subject to the complex, but the same rhythm. In the foreground, he wrote in the full light of high, as if moving to the viewer, the figure of Captain Banning Coca shooters dressed in black and red; next to him - a lieutenant, which is bright yellow coat shines intense local spot. These figures sharply contrasted with others, be relegated to the shade and gradually melting into the depths. shooters as if made after their leaders in a march in solemn procession (or watch, as it seemed to the uninitiated viewers of this painting).

"Night Watch" called it, mainly because that darkened varnish for years hid under the dark veil its true colors (now this removed lacquer). But in "Night Watch" and are still not quite clear figures and neistolkovannye details, in this huge painting, with its complex internal contrasts, the symbols and allusions puts all the impetuosity of the imagination, all the freedom and independence of art by Rembrandt, which entered into a period of creative maturity.

But customers, sober, positive and fearing all sorts of surprises, not willing to put up with either the complexity or the audacity of Rembrandt's design and were extremely disappointed.

Photo - Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn
«Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn»

Many had reason to complain about that (even though they paid a price equal to) their faces in the painting can not be considered, but was dissatisfied and Banning Cock, and he defiantly ordered his portrait Bartholomeus van der Helstu.

From this point of Rembrandt recoiled most affluent customers. The shift in public tastes, especially early say in the biggest center of the country, has led to what the greatest genius of Dutch national was on the unpopular position of the artist, his deep, progressive art continues to appreciate the few. "

In memory of his wife wrote the famous Rembrandt painting, "David and Jonathan" (1643), a kind of farewell scene between two people, I lost forever. His attitude toward his wife and artist expressed in the portrait of the Holy Family "(1645). It is amazing that the artist uses bright colors, thus expressing his belief that life and death are one and all people ever reunited in heaven.

In the painting "Holy Family" instead of loud colors and bravura of emotion popular "Self-Portrait with Saskia lap restraint prevailed halftones, penumbra, and reverent silence. In the crib of baby Jesus recognizable small artist's son Titus, but Maria, carefully bent over him - not like Rezvoy Saskia. Anemic blonde burzhuazku replaced by a strong dark-skinned peasant girl kind, charming is not fragile appearance, and penetration of expression.

After the death of the artist's wife hired a nanny to Titus - a widow Hertha Dirks. As D. Mannering says: "In 1649 she filed for Rembrandt to court for breach of contract, a year later was in prison, and the contents of the artist. Was it generosity on his part or on the contrary, he purposely hid Hertha behind bars that we are not destined to learn.

Eyewitness judicial strife - a young servant girl Hendrickje Stoffels received by the workers to Rembrandt about 1647. It could well be the reason for his break with Hertha.

Photo - Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn
«Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn»

In any case, until his death she remained his housekeeper and mistress. With the tenderness of the prescribed person in the painting "Bathsheba" and many other equally famous works of 50-ies, no doubt, a person Hendrick. There is reason to believe that she was a faithful companion of Rembrandt and enjoyed his confidence.

In 1654 Hendrickje became pregnant, and the local Protestant church condemned it, but soon the girl was left alone. In October 1654 she gave birth to Rembrandt's daughter Cornelia. "

Hendrickje also becomes a model for a number of genre paintings. "Hendrickje of Ransdorpa with a rare dedication to get used to the life of the new drama of Rembrandt's" Bathsheba, "the charm of which - in the complete absence of ego ... - Notes O. Petrochuk. - Hendrickje as if all the jewelry in the world prefer a modest wedding ring, which is due to" illegal "marriage with an artist is not wearing on his finger, and on the neck, which can be seen in the most psychologically complete her image -" Hendrickje the window. "in it together all the bitter and the happy fate of a young woman, like the legendary Beersheba, and Dana, a luminous love of an aging genius - also a kind king and god, just the painting.

Gradually - from portrait to portrait - a shy maid, as if aware of the power of his charisma in its entirety and completeness. Just always hiding something in their sleeves, then under her shawl, then a window frame its large, coarsened by work, but flexible feminine hands, as if ashamed of their kind. "

In the early fifties, the artist creates a masterpiece after another: "Bathsheba" (1654), "Portrait of Jan Six" (1654), "The Polish Rider" (1655-1657), "Titus reading." It was in the fifties, Rembrandt is the greatest master of etching, creates many of his best works: "Christ healing the sick" (so-called "sheet of one hundred florins, about 1649)," Three Crosses "(1653-1660), portraits Lutmy (1656) and Haring (1655), "The Manor weigher of gold" (1651).

However, money matters were getting worse.

Photo - Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn
«Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn»

Lenders are increasingly harassed by Rembrandt for rising debts and clerics blamed for unlawful cohabitation with Hendrick. In 1656 the artist took an inventory of the property, and soon at the Hotel Royal Crown is its sale. In 1660 the house was sold.

Titus and Hendrik create a company and are invited to Rembrandt's work for them to "their" pictures do not fall into the hands of creditors. Had to move to the outskirts of Amsterdam. It was there that a poor street Canal Rose were the last ten years of life master. But the artist did not lose heart in the last decade of his life creating such masterpieces as "Conspiracy Julius Civilis" (1661), "Sindica" (1662).

As rightly notes, LD Favorite: "Famous" Sindica "portrait syndics (that is administered by the Corporation draper) - undoubtedly the most perfect of all ever written group portraits. Knowing after the experience of" Night Watch ", that light in his power, concentrating it in the Rembrandt This picture evenly, without "mischief", revealing soul "mobility" of each character and bringing them all deeply saturated with a striking color scheme into a single, indivisible whole and magnificent. "

Best picture of this period was "The Return of the Prodigal Son" (1669). YI Kuznetsov wrote:

"By mid 1660-s Rembrandt completes his most soulful work -" The Return of the Prodigal Son. "It can be viewed as a testament to Rembrandt and Rembrandt-man-artist. It is here that the idea of forgiving love to a man, humiliated and suffering - the idea that Rembrandt served all their lives - are the highest, most perfect embodiment. And in this work, we meet with all the richness and variety of scenic and techniques that the artist has developed over many decades of creativity.

Ragged, exhausted and sick, squandered his fortune and abandoned by her friends, there is a son on the eve of his father's house, and here in the arms of his father, finds forgiveness and consolation.

Immeasurable joy light of these two - the old man had lost all hope for a meeting with his son, and son, covered with shame and remorse, hiding the face on his chest his father - is the main emotional content of the product. In silence, stunned, frozen involuntary witnesses of this scene.

Artist maximum limit itself in color. The painting is dominated by golden-ocher, cinnabar red, black and brown colors with an infinite wealth of subtle transitions within this range of mean ...

Only the wise great life experience and a great, come a long way the artist could create a brilliant and simple product.

In "Return of the Prodigal Son, nothing happens and nothing is pronounced - all was said changed my mind, suffered and felt a long time ago, during the long wait, but there is the joy of meeting, a quiet and bright ..."

Hendrickje died in 1663. By 1666 at the Titus van Rijn, things went so well that he was able to pay and their recent, and old father's debts, and even in addition to bestow her father with new canvas and printing presses. But not for long enjoyed the successes of the artist's son. In 1668 tuberculosis claimed Titus.

"In Tuesday, October 8, 1669, buried van Rijn, an artist with Rozengraht contrary Dolgof ...", - says the last of the documents relating to the life of Rembrandt - a record in the church book Westerkerk.

 
  1. People and biographies — Painter
  2. Photo: Ilya RepinRepin was a model of selfless devotion to art. The artist wrote: "Art, I love you more goodness ... Love secretly, jealously, like an old drunkard - terminally. Wherever I go, whatever amused, no matter how admired, no matter what he…
  3. Photo: Vladimir MakovskiyMakovsky - one of the most popular Russian artists of the genre painters of the second half of XIX century. He is known as the author of numerous paintings, truthfully and versatile life shows various levels of Russian society of his…
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