Queen of England to 1558, the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. When Elizabeth I were fortified positions of absolutism was restored Church of England, defeated the Spanish Invincible Armada (1588), widely carried out the colonization of Ireland.
In the history of any country were the lords, the board noted that great changes that contributed to the economic growth of the state. Their names are usually closely related, and the names of brilliant men of the time, because the major activities reformers can create a revolution in the minds of his countrymen. For the British this was the ruler of Elizabeth I.
The Queen has made a huge impression on Shakespeare:
For the happiness of the fatherland
She would live to ripe old age,
And many days passeth over it,
And neither blowjob without
To exploit the benefit not been successful.
But so was thinking about Elizabeth is not one Shakespeare, rather it is the opinion of the majority of his contemporaries. Elizabeth during his lifetime has become the darling of the people, failing to excite the sympathy and interest. In addition, her reign distinguished intelligence and radeniem the welfare state. Truly she was zealous housekeeper, care about the brightness of the home.
Libidinous King Henry VIII, Elizabeth's father, has made a serious confusion in the law of succession. He declared her heir, but when, two years later, Henry became interested Joanna Seymour and put to death his former wife, Anne Boleyn - the mother of Elizabeth, the poor girl, of course, lost all rights to the crown. However, before his death, Henry once again restore the rights of daughters. Thus, when in 1558, died on bloody Mariya1, the elder sister Elizabeth, then our heroine free to come to the throne.
The first wise act of state the new queen was to approve the country's Anglican church, which once removed, though not completely destroyed, and religious tension. Elizabeth was a Catholic, in her palace chapel of the crucifix was constantly surrounded by lit candles, but to resist the strong Protestant party was tantamount to suicide, and the queen wisely decided to reconcile the extremes. The new Anglican Church, which is related to his doctrine of Protestantism, and in rituals - Catholicism, to satisfy all but the Puritans, but the government managed to hold down their mouths, publishing law, threatening death to anyone who dares to call the Queen "heretic", contest of her right to the crown or assign these rights to another person.
This other person was for her niece, Mary Elizabeth Stewart. Few names in history, so closely related to each other. How much bandied about much speculation, many great works of art gave rise to this "couple"
Mary Stuart was beautiful, and this alone may be reason for a woman to an irreconcilable hatred. Elizabeth is no exception. Jealous, voluptuous, she would not allow her opponent to the court, which take just ugly. But the most disastrous for Mary was that she had a hereditary right to the English throne. In addition, it supported the Pope Pius V, seeing Mary exemplary Catholic.
I must say that the charm brought up in France, Mary Stuart, unfortunately, has not been completed prudence. It featured a penchant for adventure and the ability to "vlyapyvatsya in unpleasant stories. After another such case, as the Scottish queen, Mary alienated strong opposition, which has not forgiven her husband's murder and the desire to marry again, for his killer. Mary Stewart was forced to flee. And as she was running nowhere else, she was forced to apologize to her aunt and ask for asylum in the UK.
Elizabeth was in a difficult position. Punish Mary she had no right, push the poor would unroyal deed, release, so she could flee to France or Spain, would be to give her up arms against England. Elizabeth came to the aid of female cunning. She refused a meeting with his niece and told to forward it to Fotheringay Castle. At nineteen, Mary Stuart became a prisoner of Elizabeth and robbed her of rest. Not only that, from time to time there were troubles Catholic population, which supported the Scottish Queen Mary herself got involved in a conspiracy headed by the Spanish ambassador. When the plot was opened, Elizabeth made a real trial. Naturally, in a state where Elizabeth rules alone, the judges could not bear another sentence, other than death, recognizing Mary guilty. But the English queen, too well aware of the reaction of those around for a long time could not sign a death verdict. She was accustomed to always play the role of pure, virginal, compassionate and loving people, was held hostage to their own masks, while the charming prisoner, drawing on their side more and more adherents, it becomes very dangerous.
Elizabeth handed the document to Secretary of State Davison Court and in such vague terms its value explained that he did not know what to do. The Queen, not wanting to take responsibility, like Pilate, washed its hands, leaving to take the shame of the massacre of defenseless women to their subordinates.
In 1587 Mary was beheaded. Elizabeth to the end finish its role in this tragedy. Upon learning of the death of her niece, she was crying, saying that her orders were falsely interpreted. Accident Davison planted in prison, and the French Ambassador Elizabeth announced that he would never forgive his ministers had an accident. History, however, to explain everything, and the name of the Queen of England forever remain tainted murder a rival.
Meanwhile, the reign of Elizabeth of England noted major successes in the economy and politics. The Queen has supported British industry, first established trade relations with foreign States, patron of navigation, founded the colony in the New World. London owes her first charitable institutions.
Elizabeth never married. Most likely it "muzhenenavistnichestvo" was generated by the unwillingness to share power. For a long time negotiated the marriage of Elizabeth to the French king Henry III. However, our heroine, and then cheat. Not wishing to quarrel with a respectable neighbor and hurt by his refusal, Elizabeth turned to the members of the Privy Council, to a negative response came not from her, as it were, on behalf of the nation. For "the good of his people," the queen humbly agreed to remain a virgin.
But, of course, Elizabeth indulged in carnal pleasures. For a long time, it provided a preference favorite, Earl of Leicester, who was also flattered himself to become the husband of the queen. However, the "virgin" in no hurry to tie the knot, and desperate lover secretly married the beautiful Essex. Poor wife that marriage was worth living. When eight years later, Elizabeth found out about the betrayal of her lover, she went into a rage. Scared Lester killed his wife, but the location of the former mistress of this act, he could not return. Then, to save his life, Earl has decided to become a pimp. In late 1584 he presented to the court of his stepson, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, a handsome seventeen. Deft fellow did not think about death, an unhappy mother and stepfather on the advice of "jumped" into the bed of fifty years of Elizabeth. His boyish arrogance liked her alone and knew no bounds. Once on board it, selling in the views of the Queen, sulked and turned back to her. Offended Elizabeth, no hesitation, youngster slapped across the face. Essex grabbed his sword. Such are the hot passion played out in the chambers of the royal person.
In Ireland, riots broke out on religious grounds.
Against the rebels aging queen sent troops under the command of matured Earl of Essex. Hike favorite was unsuccessful, he had to enter into negotiations with the enemy. Relying on their influence on the queen, he, without asking her consent, signed a contract with the Irish in their favor. This blunder many envious lucky favorite used to the fullest. Hide misconduct Elizabeth could not, and the court has deprived the graph of all positions and ranks, formed the source of his income. Struck by this blow, Essex did not lose hope for a personal explanation to Elizabeth, but hostile to him the party is not allowed visits. Then he was born with the intention of the insane arms move into the palace and force the queen to shift all of its advisers. With a group of loyal friends, he tried to put this plan into execution, but was captured and convicted of treason.
Queen hands were shaking when she signed the death sentence to man who 17 years to enjoy its exceptional location. On this occasion, a legend was born that day Elizabeth gave Essex a precious ring: "What would be with you no matter what happens, what would you not guilty, send me this ring. He reminds me a happy day today, and I forgive you."
Say, Earl tried to give this ring to the queen, but a personal favorite of the enemy prevented him to do it. Not having received the ring besides learning that her lover, too, for example, secretly married her stepfather, Elizabeth signed the fateful paper. Essex went to the scaffold 25 February 1601, convinced that the Queen had deceived him, and royalty was sobbing at this time, convinced that a lover scorned her.
Penalty Box is not passed for seventy years old woman without a trace. Shadow of the murdered following her everywhere, the anniversary of the death of Elizabeth spent in solitude. Remorse chased a woman to such an extent that she decided to die. Whole days in silence she lay on the pillows, refusing medication. When it dared to talk of succession, then Elizabeth bequeathed the throne of her son, who was executed Mary Queen of Scots - Scotland Jacob.
Forty-five years of Elizabeth Tudor reigned, leaving a strong country and a lot of legends embodied in an excellent literary and dramatic works.